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The Art of War PDF, ePub eBook


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Title: The Art of War
Author: Niccolò Machiavelli
Publisher: Published July 5th 2001 by Da Capo Press (first published 1521)
ISBN: 9780306810763
Status : FREE Rating :
4.6 out of 5

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Voltaire said, "Machiavelli taught Europe the art of war; it had long been practiced, without being known." For Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527), war was war, and victory the supreme aim to which all other considerations must be subordinated. The Art of War is far from an anachronism—its pages outline fundamental questions that theorists of war continue to examine today, ma Voltaire said, "Machiavelli taught Europe the art of war; it had long been practiced, without being known." For Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527), war was war, and victory the supreme aim to which all other considerations must be subordinated. The Art of War is far from an anachronism—its pages outline fundamental questions that theorists of war continue to examine today, making it essential reading for any student of military history, strategy, or theory. Machiavelli believed The Art of War to be his most important work.

30 review for The Art of War

  1. 4 out of 5

    Knarik Gasparyan

    - "Good orders without military help are disordered" - "A wise questioner makes one considermany things and recognize many others that one would never have recognized without being asked." - War makes thieves and peace hangs them. - Aquire fame as able not as good. - I am esteemed not so much because I understand war as because I also know how to counsel in peace. - DOn't keep beside you either too great lovers of peace or too great lovers of war. - A battle that you win cancels any other bad action o - "Good orders without military help are disordered" - "A wise questioner makes one considermany things and recognize many others that one would never have recognized without being asked." - War makes thieves and peace hangs them. - Aquire fame as able not as good. - I am esteemed not so much because I understand war as because I also know how to counsel in peace. - DOn't keep beside you either too great lovers of peace or too great lovers of war. - A battle that you win cancels any other bad action of yours, and viceversa. - One cannot make a foundation on other arms than one's own and one cannot order one's own arms otherwise than by way of militia. - Well ordered men, armed as well as unarmed, fear the laws. - One should change the heads each year from governement to government, because the continued authority over the same place and men generates union that can be converted to prejudice. - Men do not suffer from things to which they are accustomed. - It is more important for one to guard against being hit than it is important to hit the enemy. - Never order an army so that whoever fights ahead cannot be assisted by those posted behind. - No captain encamps near to the enemy, unless the former is arranged to do battle any time the enemy wants. - For in war, every other thing can in time be conquered, Hunger alone in time conquers you. - Make your enemy suspect his own men in whom he confides. - Want the trouble to follow when the enemy flees rather than the danger of conquering them when they defend themselves. - Guard those places better by which you think you can be hurt less. -Nature produces few hardy men; industry and training makes many. - New and sudden things frighten armies. - Take counsel from many on the things that you must do; what you later want to do, tell few. - "You should never believe that the enemy does not know his business, rather, if you want to deceive yourself less and bring on less danger, the more he appears weak, the more enemy appears more cautious, so much the more ought you to esteem (be wary) of him. And in this you have to use two different means, since you have to fear him with your thoughts and arrangements, but by words and other external demonstrations show him how much you disparage him; for this latter method causes your soldiers to have more hope in obtaining the victory, the former makes you more cautious and less apt to be deceived." - "Confidence is instilled by arms organization, fresh victories, and the knowledge of the Captain. Love of Country springs from nature. Necessities can be many, but that is the strongest, which constrains you either to win or to die." - If you should have present in your army someone who keeps the enemy advised of your designs, you cannot do better if you want to avail yourself of his evil intentions, than to communicate to him those things you do not want to do, and keep silent those things you want to do, and tell him you are apprehensive of the things of which you are not apprehensive, and conceal those things of which you are apprehensive: which will cause the enemy to undertake some enterprise, in the belief that he knows your designs, in which you can deceive him and defeat him.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Mega

    His writings are considered immoral, he teaches you to be appear to be meek as a lamb but deadly as a lion. How to conquer, how to placate, the importance of perception and how it is better to be feared than loved.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Jeremy

    The only one of Machiavelli's major works to be published in his lifetime, The Art of War is a survey of Machiavelli's opinions on the composition, employment, and leadership of an army. I found the introduction to this book by Neal Wood to be illuminating as it connected Machiavelli's views in this book to his other famous political works ( Discourses and The Prince ). It also discussed Machiavelli's sources (most of his examples are from Greek and Roman history, as befitting a Renaissance boo The only one of Machiavelli's major works to be published in his lifetime, The Art of War is a survey of Machiavelli's opinions on the composition, employment, and leadership of an army. I found the introduction to this book by Neal Wood to be illuminating as it connected Machiavelli's views in this book to his other famous political works ( Discourses and The Prince ). It also discussed Machiavelli's sources (most of his examples are from Greek and Roman history, as befitting a Renaissance book) and some of the details that he got wrong. Machiavelli writes the book as a question and answer session with a military expert, which became tedious as the participants kept flattering each other. Machiavelli also takes great pains to describe the composition and formations of his ideal army, which gets very long in words. The diagrams provided in the appendix were much more understandable. One of his interesting assertions is that armies and nations win because of their virtu, which the translator left untranslated. Virtu can be termed as both character and fighting spirit. Machiavelli says it is built both through right living and also experience in warfare. Because any country who conquers all its neighbors will end up losing experience in fighting, Machiavelli asserts that every people will finally lose its virtu and be conquered by another, but he does think that can be postponed some. After beginning the book with this discussion (which the introduction's author asserts connects The Art of War with Machiavelli's other works), he moves into more specific topics of how to attack with an army, how to march an army, how to camp an army, how to attack/defend a city, and the best characteristics of a general. What I found most fascinating about this book was the correlaries with Unorthodox Strategies , which I recently finished. Although the authors, and the events they describe, were literally a world apart, the principles they espouse are amazingly similar. Both touch on rewards and punishments to keep discipline, the effect of terrain, supplying an army, advance and retreat, subterfuge, and more. To me, the most striking similar advice was to leave an avenue of escape for a retreating enemy because a cornered army will fight more ferociously. A sensible piece of advice, but counterintuitive. It seems principles of successful warfare were the same in Greece, Rome, or China. This book adds some advice on artillery, which was not treated in the Chinese military classics that I have read, because they were written earlier. While some of the book was tedious, the treatment of strategy and the connections I found with other books I have read made me glad I finally got around to reading it.

  4. 5 out of 5

    zahraa

    لم استطع اكماله، وذلك لأن معلوماته ليست جديدة بالنسبة لي

  5. 4 out of 5

    Thomas

    Haven't read this in a while. It's still a great read. There are so many nuances and strategies that can be applied to all aspects of life, not just war, that can make your actions and decisions mutually beneficial for yourself and everyone involved. :)

  6. 4 out of 5

    Joshua Guest

    Nothing like Sun Tzu's timeless treatise of the same name. Disappointing.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Abdullah

    الكثير من الناس وأنا منهم لم يعرف ميكافيلي الا بصفته مفكرا سياسيا وشخصية إنتهازية مؤسسةً لنظرية الواقعية السياسية عن طريق أطروحته في كتاب الأمير، ولكن ميكافيلي لم يكن كذلك وحسب، فقد كان إضافة الى ذلك مؤرخا وخبيرا عسكريا في هذا الكتاب "فن الحرب" رأيت الوجه الأخر لمكيافيلي، المواطن الصالح والخبير العسكري العارف بمجريات التاريخ، لقد نشر الكتاب لأول مرة أثناء حياة مؤلفه سنة (1521م) بعكس مؤلفاته الأخرى والتي لم ترى النور الا بعد موته (1469م-1527م) وظهرت أكثر من عشرين طبعة للكتب في القرن السادس عشر بأ الكثير من الناس وأنا منهم لم يعرف ميكافيلي الا بصفته مفكرا سياسيا وشخصية إنتهازية مؤسسةً لنظرية الواقعية السياسية عن طريق أطروحته في كتاب الأمير، ولكن ميكافيلي لم يكن كذلك وحسب، فقد كان إضافة الى ذلك مؤرخا وخبيرا عسكريا في هذا الكتاب "فن الحرب" رأيت الوجه الأخر لمكيافيلي، المواطن الصالح والخبير العسكري العارف بمجريات التاريخ، لقد نشر الكتاب لأول مرة أثناء حياة مؤلفه سنة (1521م) بعكس مؤلفاته الأخرى والتي لم ترى النور الا بعد موته (1469م-1527م) وظهرت أكثر من عشرين طبعة للكتب في القرن السادس عشر بأكثر من لغة وتأثر بها العديد من القادة أمثال نابليون فرنسا وفيدريك الثاني (العظيم) ملك بروسيا، والرئيس الأمريكي جيفرسون أحد الأباء المؤسسين للدستور الأمريكي، بالإضافة الى تأثر المدرسة العسكرية الحديثة بالكثير من نظرياته رغم مرور قرابة الخمس قرون على وجود الكتاب، ومع أن المؤلف يتحدث عن الحروب النظامية بصورة رئيسية والتي لم يعد لها وجود الا أن الإطلاع على هذه الأطروحة سيمنح القادة العسكريين رؤية أشمل للعمليات الحربية من خلال الإطلاع على نقاط الضعف والقوة في الجيوش على مر العصور وإنزالها على الواقع المعاصر لهم، وستجد الكثير من الأمثلة لقادة خلدهم التاريخ بسبب نبوغهم العسكري، وكما يقول ميكافيلي فإن الإبتكار ومخالفة السائد هو الذي منحهم الأفضلية أمام أعدائهم على مر التاريخ، وكان أسلوبه في عرض الأفكار والمفاهيم عن طريق الحوار ، وأوجز في نهاية الكتاب النقاط الأساسية المستفادة من رؤيته وعددها 27 وسماها القواعد للعامة للإنضباط العسكري 1- كل ما يساعد العدو يسبب للضرر لك، وكل شي يسبب الضرر للعدو يساعدك 2- الأكثر حذرا في مراقبة العدو وخططه، والأفضل تدريبا لجيشه وتنظيمه، سيكون الأقل تعرضا للخسارة وأقرب منها للنصر 3- لا تجعل جنودك يشتركون في للقتال الا بعد التأكد من إثارة حماسهم وشجاعتهم والتأكد من إتباعهم للنظام، ولا تجازف حتى تتأكد من ثقتهم بأنفسهم 4- إخضاع العدو بالجوع أفضل من السيف 5- الخطة الأفضل هي التي لا يعلم عنها العدو الا في وقت تنفيذها 6- الإستفادة من الأحداث المفاجئة وتوظيفها في سبيل الإنتصار 7- الشجاعة نادرة ولكن الإنضباط والخبرة تصنع الكثير منهم 8- يمكن الإعتماد الى الإنضباط والتقيد بالنظام في الجيش أكثر من الشجاعة 9- الإستفادة القصوى من المنشقين التابعين لقوات العدو والحذر منهم 10- أهمية قوات الإحتياط في المعارك وعند الجيوش 11- المعرفة بقدرات قواتك وقوات العدو سنقلل من نسبة الخطأ والهزيمة 12- ضرورة إخبار الجنود عن طبيعة اعدائهم ومنحهم فرصة للاقتراب منهم قبل الإشتباك في المعركة 13- الكيف أكثر أهمية من الكم في الجيوش بالإضافة الى أهمية إختيار المكان في المعارك 14- الإضطراب الذي يقع بعد الإنتصار في المعركة يحول الانتصار الى هزيمة 15- أهمية الإكتفاء بالمؤن والذخائر وتأمينها 16- اختر جنودك بناء على القدرات والكفائات 17- احذر من الجواسيس واختبر قواتك بشكل دوري 18- عندما يعلم العدو بخطتك يجب تغريرها 19- تشاور مع الكثير حول ما يجب فعله وتشاور مع النخبة القليلة حول ما ستقوم به في الواقع 20- في السلم يجب عليك السيطرة على جنودك عن طريق الترهيب والعقاب ولكن في حالة الحرب يجب عليك دفعهم بالأمل والمكافئات 21-القائد الناجح هو الذي يجعل الإشتباك والإلتحام اخر الحلول 22- بدل مواقع قواتك بشكل دوري حتى تشتت إستخبارات العدو 23- لا تحاول تبديل الأدوار والمهام في حالة الحرب لتجنب اثارة الفضوى 24- رسم خطط إستباقية لجميع الظروف لتجنب عنصر المفاجئة 25- الرجال والأسلحة هم الأهم بالجيوش لأنها تستطيع توفير المال والمؤمن من خلال قوتها العسكرية 26- الرجل الغني بدون سلاح سيكون فريسة سهلة للفقير الذي يحمل سلاحا 27- درب جنودك على كره ومقت حياة الترف ولا بد من الإشارة قبل الحديث عن البنية المعرفية للكتاب الى ترجمة الأستاذ صالح صابر زغلول والذي قام بترجمة النص مشكورا من اللغة الإنجليزية والصادر من دار الكتاب العربي في عام 2015م ، وقد قسم المترجم الكتاب الى مقدمتين بالإضافة لسبعةِ فصولٍ وخاتمة المقدمة الأولى خاصة بالمترجم ويعرض فيها بدايةً نبذة بسيطة عن حياة المؤلف والجوانب الإيجابية في شخصيته وأعماله، والأسباب التي دعته الى ترجمة النص الى العربية، ثم يأتي بذكر بعض القادة التاريخيين والذين تأثروا بهذا الكتاب أمثال موسيليني ونابليون وفيدريك، بعد ذلك يستعرض بعض المقتطفات من الكتاب والتي تُظهر مدى أهميته بالنسبة لنا وإمكانية إستفادتنا منه في الوقت الحاضر، ثم تحدث عن الطريقة التي قدم بها ميكافيلي أطروحته، وهي ما يعرف بالحوار السقراطي والتي تعرض الأفكار والمفاهيم عن طريق الحوار بالسؤال والإجابة، والشكل الذي قسم بها المؤلف كتابه وهي مقدمة وسبعة فصول أما المقدمة الأخرى والخاصة بالمؤلف فهي عبارة عن رسالة الى أحد أصدقائه يستعرض فيها الفرق بين الحياة المدنية والعسكرية، وعلاقتهما ببعضهما ثم يتحدث عن أهمية القوة العسكرية بالنسبة للدولة والقانون وكيفية تعزيزها من خلال إستخلاص التجارب التاريخية القديمة والإستفادة منها لمعالجة القصور العسكري الموجود في المدن الإيطالية في زمانه، يرى ميكافيلي أن الحضارة لا تستطيع أن تنهض بدون وجود دولة قوية، وأن الدولة اذا أرادت أن تكون قوية لا بد من إمتلاكها قوةً عسكرية لتدافع عنها، وأن هذه القوة العسكرية تستطيع إمتلاكها عن طريق تطبيق المبادئ العسكرية القديمة والتي يكون فيها الرجل العسكري مثالا في الإنضباط والأخلاق في الفصل الأول يتحدث المؤلف عن المقدمات الأولى في الحوار السقراطي مستعرضا أبطاله والظروف المحيطة بهم متخذا لشخصية "فابريزيو" القائد العكسري طرفا أساسيا في الحوار، بدايةً ينتقد فابريزيو مظاهر الترف والدعة والتي يرى بأنها السبب الرئيسي في سقوط جميع الإمبروطوريات والأمم السابقة وإتخذ الرومان مثلا لذلك، ثم أشاد بالعادات القديمة للشعوب السابقة ومبدائها الأخلاقية خاصةً تلك التي تتلعق بالجوانب العسكرية من نظام وإنضباط وقدرة على تحمل المشاق، وإفترض أن إعادة إحياءها ضرورة لإقامة الجيوش القوية وأن الحاكم هو الوحيد القادر على ذلك من خلال سلطته السياسية، ثم تحدث عن فساد الجيوش بعد إنتهاء الحروب وكيفية معالجتها، ويرى بأن الجيش سلاح ذو حدين وللسيطرة عليه تحتاج الى الإلمام بفنون الحرب في طريقة إدارته لتجنب ما حدث للجمهورية الرومانية على يد جيوش قيصر وبومبي والتي قضيا عليها، بعد ذلك تحدث عن الطريقة المثلى لتشكيل الجيوش والصفات المثالية في الأفراد المطلوب تجنيدهم وضرورة كونهم من المواطنين وحذر من الإعتماد على المرتزقة، بعد ذلك تحدث عن الأعمار المناسبة للتجنيد وأهمية تدريبهم في وقت السلم، بالاضافة الى الكيفية التي يتم بها تعيين القادة والضباط في الجيش وفِي الفصل الثاني من الكتاب يتحدث المؤلف عن تنظيم القوات وتسليحها المناسب بالإضافة الى طريقة تدريب الجنود، أما عن التنظيم فقد إعتمد المؤلف التنظيم الروماني والذي يقسم القوات الى قسمين رئيسيين، قوات ذات تسليح خفيف واُخرى بتسليح ثقيل، وقارنها بغيرها من التنظيمات الأسيوية والأوروبية، وأكد على أفضلية المشاة الراجله على سلاح الفرسان ورغم إختياره للنظام الروماني في التنظيم والتدريب الا أنه لم يلتزم بالتسليح الروماني بشكل كامل بل إستعار بعض أسلحة الجيوش الأخرى، ثم إنتقل بعد ذلك الى المناورات الحربية والتكتيكات العسكرية وأهمية تدريب القوات عليها في أوقات السلم وإختصر هذا في ثلاث أمور، أولها اللياقة البدنية العالية وفعالية إستخدام الجنود للأسلحة وأخيرا الإنضباط والتقيد بالنظام، ثم ذهب يتحدث عن التقسيم العددي للجيوش وإقترح أن يكون تعداد القوة العسكرية 6000 رجل مقسمة الى عشر أجزاء، وتجدر الإشارة هنا الى أن الكثير من الجيوش الحالية في القرن الواحد وعشرين ما زالت ملتزمةً بهذا التقسيم مع إختلاف المسميات، بعد ذلك يذكر كيفية تدريب هذه القوات على المناورات حسب طبيعة كل أرض، ثم تحدث عن أهمية الإتصالات في السيطرة على الجيوش وإستعرض الأدوات التي إستخدمتها الجيوش القديمة والطريقة التي يثير بها القادة حماسةَ جنودهم، وقارن بين الظروف التي دعت القدماء لفرض الإنضباط عند شعوبهم وبين الظروف التي جعلت التقيد بالنظام في عصره معدوما، وأرجع السبب الى الطريقة التي كانت يعامل المنتصرون فيها مهزوميهم، وفِي نهاية الفصل يرسم الحالة السياسية لأوروبا بصورة إيجابية بقوله "حيث يوجد العديد من الدول سيكون هناك الكثير من الرجال من أصحاب المزايا والفضائل" وحين يصل الى فصله الثالث يبدأ في مقارنة طريقة القتال الروماني بغيرها من الحضارات والأمم والتي تعتمد في معاركها على التبديل المستمر للمقاتلين بحيث يتم تقسيم كل قوة الى ثلاث مجموعات تتناول الهجوم تباعا وثم تقوم جميعها بهجوم أخير تنتهي بعده المعركة، بعكس الجيوش الأخرى والتي تشن هجوما واحدًا معتمدا على نظام التلاحم والتعبئة، وتحدث بإسهاب عن تنظيمات الجيوش وأصولها التاريخية وكيفة إختيار كلٍ منها بناء على نوعية العدو وطبيعة أرض المعركة والمناخ إضافةً الى طريقة التعامل مع أسلحة العدو والإستفادة من نقاط ضعفه، وأكد على حماية الجهات الأربع للجيوش وعدم إهمالها و لم يهمل المؤلف الحديث عن القيادات الصغرى بالجيش وأهميتها ونظم علاقتها ببعضها ومع مرؤسيها كذلك، وفِي نهاية الفصل أكد على أهمية التدريب العسكري المبني على ظروف واقعية و أهمية عنصر الإتصالات بالمعركة وأخيرا أعطى أفضلية أكثر للهجوم الصامت بالمعركة مقارنةً بالهجوم الصاخب وأما عن رابع فصول هذا الكتاب تحدث عن طريقة الإستفادة من الظروف الطبيعية عن طريق تطبيق بعض المناورات الحربية والتكتيكات العسكرية في حال تفوق العدو عدديا وعسكريا وضرب بذلك عددا من الأمثلة التاريخية والتي أسهب بذكر العديد منها، وأكد كعادته على أفضلية التنظيمات الرومانية وتكتياتها، ثم تحدث عن عدد من الطرق والتي تزعزع قوات العدو ومنها إختلاق الشائعات وكيفة معالجتها في حال توجيهها الى جيوشنا والإستفادة منها إن أمكن، ثم تحدث عن أسباب النصر في الحروب والتي تتعدى كما يرى القتال بالمعارك الى المكاسب السياسية التي يمنحها الإنتصار المعارك، بالإضافة الى تقليل الضرر في حال خسارة المعركة ومحاولة قلب الموازين اذا كان في الإمكان لأن الجيوش المنتصرة في نهاية معركتها تصاب بالغرور الذي قد يفرط بإنتصارها اذا إستغلت الجيوش المهزومة ذلك، وأضاف الى الأفضلية تكون في إستقبال هجمة العدو وصدها لا مبادرته بالهجوم لأن النجاح في صد للهجمة الاولى سيمنح الفرصة للدفع بهجوم مضاد قد يتسبب في هزيمة الجيش المهاجم وإستعرض عددا من الأمثلة التاريخية للإستدلال، وفي نهاية الفصل يشرح المؤلف الطرق المثالية لتشجيع الجنود وإثاره حماستهم قبل بدء المعارك وأولى أهمية كبيرة للخطب ودعى السياسيين الى تمكنين قادة الجيش في فنون الخطابة، وتشويه صورة العدو لدى الجنود من خلال تحقيرهم كما فعل أحد قادة أسبرطة عندما جعل جنوده ينظرون الى أعدائهم من الأسرى الفرس عراة بجلودهم الناعمة والبيضاء وفِي بداية الفصل الخامس من الكتاب يتحدث عن أهمية إستطلاع أرض المعركة والعدو قبل الإقتراب منها وكيفية التعامل مع القرى المحايدة او تلك التي تنتمي للعدو المستهدف، والطريقة المثالية لتشكيل الجيوش اثناء التحرك أو تمركزها بشكل تكون مستعدة للقتال حتى أثناء المسير، وأكد على حماية جميع جوانب الجيش وعدم إهمالها بحيث يمكن لأي جهة من الجهات الأربع أن تكون مقدمةً للجيش وكيفية التعامل مع الهجمات الخاطفة من العدو ، ثم تحدث عن تموين القوات بالغذاء وأهميتها بالنسبة لها، بعد ذلك يؤكد على ضرورة السيطرة على الجنود بعد انتهاء المعركة لكي لا يشغلهم جمع الغنائم من حسم المعركة بفرض القوانين الصارمة والتي تهدف الى منع القوات من جمع الغنائم الا بعد أخذ إذن القيادة العليا، ثم يكمل المؤلف الحديث عن أهمية إلمام القائد بفنون الحرب والكمائن المتوقعة وأعطى أهميةً كبرى للإستخبارت العسكرية والتي تهتم بجمع المعلومات عن العدو بافضل طريقة ممكنة، في نهاية الفصل تحدث عند عدد من الأمثلة التاريخية لقادة إستطاعوا الهروب بجيوشهم من الهزيمة المؤكدة بطرق مختلفة يجمعها الدهاء والفطنة أما فيما يخص الفصل السادس فقد بدأه المؤلف بالحديث عن أهمية تأمين المعسكرات عن طريق الطبيعة والفن العسكري، وقارن بين الإغريق والذي إعتمدوا في معسكراتهم على الاستفادة من الطبيعة وبين الرومان والذين اعتمدوا على الفن العسكري في تأمين معسكراتهم اكثر من الظروف الطبيعية، ثم تحدث بإسهاب في الطريقة المثالية لتقسيم المعسكرات وتأمينها بجميع الضروريات وكيفة حماية المعسكرات بحيث يكون ثلث الجيش مسؤولا عن الحماية في كل ليلة بدلا من وضع بعض قوات الحماية والتي قد تسبب ضررا بالغا في حال اختراقها، ثم أكد على ضرورة مبدأ الثواب والعقاب مستشهدا بقانون "تكسير العظام" عند الرومان والذي يطبق عند وجود عصيان جماعي بأن تجرى القرعة بين المتمردين ليقتل واحد من بين كل عشرة جنود، وبيّن أن لا فائدة لمبدئ العقاب اذا لم يلازمه مبدأ الثواب وأكد على أهمية تكريم الشجعان وأصحاب البطولات بالجيش ليكونوا قدوةً لزملائهم، ثم وضّح أن الأصلح لتطبيق العقوبات على الجنود هُم الجنود أنفسهم لتجنب الإنقلابات والتمرد، وتحدث عن أهمية الاستعانة بالدين للسيطرة على الجيوش إعتمادا على معتقدات جنودها، وأكد على أهمية التدريب في المعسكرات قبل بدء المعركة، ثم تحدث عن أهمية وجود خطوط إمداد والسيطرة عليها للحماية من نقص الغذاء والذخيرة وبيّن أن المجاعة هي اسوء ما يمكن أن يحدث في الجيوش، و أكد على أهمية التقيد بالنظام وأنها أجدى من الشجاعة المنفلتة بغير قيد أو شرط، بعد ذلك تحدث عن طريقة الاستفادة في حال وجود جاسوس في جيشه عن طريق مسايرته وإعطائه معلومات مغلوطة لتظليل العدو، و كيف تتعامل الجيوش مع أصحاب المناطق المحايدة بذكر العديد من الأمثلة التاريخية، ثم تحدث عن فعالية تشتيت قوات العدو عن طريق بث الفرقة بين قادتهم أو تفريق قواتهم بفتح اكثر من جبهة قتالية أو الهجوم عكسيا والتوغل في بلاد العدو والتي تركت بلا حماية، وأفاد عن الطرق الأفضل لمعالجة الخلافات بالجيش لتجنب سخطهم ثم عن الشكل الذي يجب أن يظهر به القائد أمام جنوده والذي يرتكز ع عدة أمور أهمها الشجاعة وحسن التصرف إضافةً الى الصرامة في تطبيق القوانين والزهد والعدالة، وذكر بعض الأمثلة لقادة تاريخيين تظاهروا بالإنهزام لينالوا النصر بعدما خدع العدو بمناوراتهم ، وحذر من خطر دفع العدو الى اليأيس والذي قد يكسب العدو قوة قادرة على قلب الموازين لذلك دعى لتجنب مواجهة الجيوش المهزومة وإستدل بما كان يفعله قيصر في حروبه مع الألمان عندك كلن يترك لهم فسحةً للهروب كي يلاحقهم بعد ذلك ويقتلهم من الخلف، وفِي نهاية الفصل يتحدث عن عدة طرق للتعامل مع الجيوش المهزومة والتجمعات السكنية المشكوك في ولائها بعدة نماذج تاريخية متابينة بين الشدة واللين وأخيرا نصل الى سابع الفصول والذي يفتتحه بالحديث عن تحصينات المدن المستمدة من الطبيعة والفنون العسكرية من حفرٍ للخنادق وإقامة أبراج للمراقبة وغيرها من التحصينات ، ثم قارن فيما بينها وبين الأخطاء التي تسببت في سقوط المدن وضرب كثيرا من الأمثلة التاريخية في ذلك، وتحدث عن أهمية الإختراعات البشرية والتي تسهل كثيرا من أداء الجيوش مباشرةً أو بطريقة غير مباشرة، وكيفية حرمان العدو من المميزات والمحافظ على ما تبقى منها قدر الإمكان ومقاومة الحرب النفسية التي يشنها العدو، ثم أكد على أهمية الغذاء في مقاومة الحصار و ذكر كيف خضعت عدد من المدن للإسكندر عن طريق المجاعة فقط، بالإضافة للكثير من الأمثلة التاريخية لقادة إستطاعوا إجتياح المدن عن طريق الحيلة والخديعة، بعد ذلك انتقل الى الحديث عن إستماله الأعداء بالحسنى، وطريقة إخفاء للرسائل للحفاظ على سريتها، وأن أكبر سلبيات الحصار إضطرارك لتقسيم رجالك وتشتيت قواهم، بعد ذلك ذكر 27 نقطة بشكل متسلسل سماها المؤلف بالقواعد العامة للإنضباط العسكري والتي تمثل النقاط الأساسية للكتاب، ثم تحدث عن تهيئة المجتمعات للمشاركة الحربية بفرض بعض العادات من قبل الحاكم، وشدد على أهمية الإبتكار في فنون الحرب والتي بفضلها كسب القادة العظام صيتهم وشهرتهم كالقبعة المرفوعة على العصا والتي إبتكرها الإسكندر لأمر جنوده بالمسير دون إستخدام الأبواق والتي كانت هي الطريق الوحيدة في تنبيه الجنود، وقارن بين القادة التاريخيين الذين بنوا جيوشهم مثل كورش الكبير مع القادة الذين ورثوا جيوشهم ولَم يساعدوا في بنائها، في نهاية الكتاب للمرة الأخيرة أكد على أهمية الإنضباط ثم حلل الأوضاع السياسية والإجتماعية في زمانه كيفية تجاوز حالة الضعف التي تمر بها الدويلات الإيطالية في زمانه وأما الفصل الأخير فهو عبارة عن رسومات توضح التشكيلات التي تحدث عنها المؤلف بالكتاب، قراءة ممتعة

  8. 5 out of 5

    Vincent

    When most people hear the name Machiavelli, they probably consider him a one trick pony for, "The Prince." In reality, Machiavelli was a prolific writer, but his political treatise overpowers anything else. "The Art of War" is an interesting discussion of how armies should be armed and organized. The treatise is organized into several "books" and is shown as a discussion between three characters, one of which is Machiavelli. Based on his knowledge of Roman organization, combined with the technolo When most people hear the name Machiavelli, they probably consider him a one trick pony for, "The Prince." In reality, Machiavelli was a prolific writer, but his political treatise overpowers anything else. "The Art of War" is an interesting discussion of how armies should be armed and organized. The treatise is organized into several "books" and is shown as a discussion between three characters, one of which is Machiavelli. Based on his knowledge of Roman organization, combined with the technology of the day, he lays out a clear and well thought out plan to organize Italy's armies. This is not just a theoretical work, but one which was put into practice as well. At one point he was in charge of Florence's military forces; disregarding mercenaries in favor of citizen soldiers. This paid off as well as the city's forces defeated an invasion from another city state. As a practical philosophy, this might not translate fully into today's world with discussions of archers and cavalry, but it has some overarching themes that still resonate. The reliance on citizen soldiers who are professional and dedicated to the state still hold true today. This might not be useful for everyone interested in modern military theory, but it does have useful insight in the development of military organization and as a historical document.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Sara

    In una calda giornata di primavera o d'estate, Fabrizio Colonna gioca al Fantacalcio con gli eserciti internazionali presenti e passati nell'orto di Cosimo Rucellai a Firenze. Ne esce un lungo trattato sotto forma di dialogo, molto più spesso di monologo, sull'organizzazione militare ideale, con una punta di nostalgia che in ogni epoca e luogo non può mai mancare.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Irka

    An entertaining reading. In some cases you can think that over past years nothing has changed- most people tend to think that it was easoer to live and to fight in previous centuries.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Greg Brozeit

    Machiavelli is, in my view, among the most misunderstood of thinkers. In this series of discourses, he provides some insights into the nature of war and the military that were as profound when he wrote them as they are commonplace today: militias vs. standing armies, preparing for veterans, tying military goals to those of the general welfare. He also warned of weak “princes” who failed to understand the interconnectivity between the civil and political life and “need only know how to dream up wi Machiavelli is, in my view, among the most misunderstood of thinkers. In this series of discourses, he provides some insights into the nature of war and the military that were as profound when he wrote them as they are commonplace today: militias vs. standing armies, preparing for veterans, tying military goals to those of the general welfare. He also warned of weak “princes” who failed to understand the interconnectivity between the civil and political life and “need only know how to dream up witty replies in his study; write a beautiful letter; display intelligence and readiness in his conversation and his speech; weave a fraud; adorn himself with gems and gold; sleep and eat in a more splendid style than others; surround himself with a large number of courtesans; conduct himself in a miserly and arrogant manner with his subjects; rot in laziness; give military positions as favors; despise anyone who had shown them any praiseworthy path; and expect that their pronouncements be taken as oracles.” Did he foresee Trump half a millennium ago?

  12. 4 out of 5

    James

    This is a grind. I have read Art of War by Sun Tzu and On War (abridged) by Clausewitz. Both of those were philosophical, and got boring when they got into specific tactics. This book is incredibly boring, as it is almost entirely (obviously antiquated) tactics. It is also rather poorly written (or perhaps it's just a bad translation?). It is a completely flat writing style, put in the form of a dialogue about war tactics. There is none of the charm, aphorism, or wit seen in his infamous The Pri This is a grind. I have read Art of War by Sun Tzu and On War (abridged) by Clausewitz. Both of those were philosophical, and got boring when they got into specific tactics. This book is incredibly boring, as it is almost entirely (obviously antiquated) tactics. It is also rather poorly written (or perhaps it's just a bad translation?). It is a completely flat writing style, put in the form of a dialogue about war tactics. There is none of the charm, aphorism, or wit seen in his infamous The Prince, or the even better Discourses on Livy. It's a shame, too, as Machiavelli considered it his best. It is also a shame to me, because I had quite enjoyed learning more and more about Machiavelli, and assumed this would be more of the same. I think it would be a far better use of time to re-read Discourses, or one of the many Machiavelli biographies. There are a few on the TBR list, beyond the two I read this past summer.

  13. 4 out of 5

    P.H. Wilson

    Real rating: 8/10 It is a book on military strategy, not a philosophical tome. Though most works only become philosophical thanks to the retroactive nature of the scholars that come centuries later. One should not fault the work simply because you assumed that the author wrote only in one genre. Would one lambaste Beatrix Potter's early work because they thought her book on mushrooms would be about anthropomorphic ones rather than the scientific nature that it was. That fault lies with the reader Real rating: 8/10 It is a book on military strategy, not a philosophical tome. Though most works only become philosophical thanks to the retroactive nature of the scholars that come centuries later. One should not fault the work simply because you assumed that the author wrote only in one genre. Would one lambaste Beatrix Potter's early work because they thought her book on mushrooms would be about anthropomorphic ones rather than the scientific nature that it was. That fault lies with the reader. Those looking for Machiavelli's cynical humour are out of luck. So what is left if there is no philosophy or wit? A work that lays the foundation for war in Europe for the next four hundred years. And why is this of interest? To quote John Adams "I must study politics and war that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy."

  14. 5 out of 5

    Karl

    Machiavelli thinks that Italy had fallen far behind the rest of Europe in military science and has become the "shame of the world." Italy must rediscover the methods of their ancestors to retain any dignity or even remain free from Spanish, French, or German domination. If "The Prince" could be boiled down to the question "What would Cesare Borgia do?", this book can be boiled down to "What would the ancient Romans do?" Machiavelli has a few fairly interesting sections discussing the economics o Machiavelli thinks that Italy had fallen far behind the rest of Europe in military science and has become the "shame of the world." Italy must rediscover the methods of their ancestors to retain any dignity or even remain free from Spanish, French, or German domination. If "The Prince" could be boiled down to the question "What would Cesare Borgia do?", this book can be boiled down to "What would the ancient Romans do?" Machiavelli has a few fairly interesting sections discussing the economics of raising and supporting armies, keeping the armies from turning rogue, cultivating strategic resources, and fostering military virtue among the people. His advise in the conduct of war and training an army is, in almost every regard, "do it like the Romans did". He updates the formations to account for pikemen, shield bearers, swordsmen, crossbowmen, and cannon. Where he recognizes that certain of the Roman techniques are unlikely to work in light of new technology, he proposes new methods and supports these observations with the practices of foreign armies. I think this is a better "Art of War" than both Sun Tzu's and Napoleon's... though I kinda liked to movie with Wesley Snipes.

  15. 4 out of 5

    *Giulia*

    È un libro breve ma estremamente noioso. Il più grande problema è la forma in cui è presentato. Machiavelli lo imposta come un dialogo tra amici: c’è il sapientone Fabrizio che risponde alle domande degli altri, ma a volte parla per pagine intere, tutto da solo. Poi ci sono gli amichetti, che ogni tanto intervengono, ma sono sempre d’accordo e sempre lo lodano. Le voci non sono distinte tra loro, anche se Machiavelli cambia interlocutore da una parte all’altra, la sostanza è invariata. Allora pe È un libro breve ma estremamente noioso. Il più grande problema è la forma in cui è presentato. Machiavelli lo imposta come un dialogo tra amici: c’è il sapientone Fabrizio che risponde alle domande degli altri, ma a volte parla per pagine intere, tutto da solo. Poi ci sono gli amichetti, che ogni tanto intervengono, ma sono sempre d’accordo e sempre lo lodano. Le voci non sono distinte tra loro, anche se Machiavelli cambia interlocutore da una parte all’altra, la sostanza è invariata. Allora perché non fare un trattato come dio comanda? Trovo molto fastidioso questo finto dialogo saccente. Altro problema è proprio l’argomento. A differenza dell’arte della guerra di Sun Tzu, che può essere letta e interpretata in vari modi, in quanto parla più spesso di strategia; questo invece si concentra sul funzionamento degli eserciti antichi, quindi ben poco moderno, subisce il passare del tempo. Se l’argomento può essere interessante, il formato in cui è proposto te ne fa passare la curiosità. A fine trattato mi è rimasto ben poco da ricordare. Tra la scrittura artificiosa e l’insofferenza dei dialoghi, ero semplicemente contenta di averlo finito.

  16. 5 out of 5

    Ossian's Dream

    As a celebration and explanation of masculine virtues which are still highly applicable today, this book like most of Machiavelli's works is glorious and worthy of reading and re-reading. However, the old time strategy of pike and shot and crappy artillery is obviously tiresome and not very practical, only the description of the officers and the constant focus on the need for efficient teamwork and discipline between units is worth reading. Also the constant insults against the mediocrity of tho As a celebration and explanation of masculine virtues which are still highly applicable today, this book like most of Machiavelli's works is glorious and worthy of reading and re-reading. However, the old time strategy of pike and shot and crappy artillery is obviously tiresome and not very practical, only the description of the officers and the constant focus on the need for efficient teamwork and discipline between units is worth reading. Also the constant insults against the mediocrity of those who choose comfort over war, echos the words of Benjamin Franklin. "They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety."- in regards to surrendering states who did not take war or their own conquest seriously. and "Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today." - in regards to ignoring military and physical preparation politically and individually.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Daren

    I struggled with this one - and I suspect it was me, not the book. It was supposed to be a short book to read in short slots of time over a few days, but work gets busy, those times are not available and it all becomes disjointed. I couldn't get the flow if this writing, and couldn't extract the useful from the waffle. I know it is there somewhere, I saw it quoted in other reviews... just not this time. I shall endeavour to re-read, and will improve my review, and no doubt my rating... one day.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Jan

    Zupełnie inna "Sztuka Wojny" niż ta Sun Tzu. Machiavelli poprzez dialog opowiada dosłownie o prowadzeniu wojska - treningu, dobieraniu żołnierzy, ustawieniu i organizacji armii, zakładaniu obozu, uzbrojeniu itd itp. Między wierszami można znaleźć parę uniwersalnych myśli, ale przede wszystkim jest to pozycja dla miłośników historii wojskowości.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Denis Slobodeniuk

    Цікаве джерело з історії військової справи Давнього Риму та Середньовічної Італії, але я очікував не цього. До універсального "Мистецтва війни" Сунь Цзи, з його порадами, які можна використати не тільки у військовій сфері, але й у політичній, не дотягує значно. Цілком не актуально, на відміну від "Державця". На жаль, тільки 2/5.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Cesar Ruiz

    Much like The Art of War by Sun Tzu, this book also presents useful lessons on strategy that one can widely apply in all areas of life. The wisdom behind it is made clear to the reader, and its most valuable lessons are in how to treat different people.

  21. 5 out of 5

    Alwaleed

    في بدء الامر لا يغرك اسم المؤلف و كتاب ايضا لا يدل عليه عنوانه . لا تدخل الكتاب وانت بذهنية ان تستفيد مثل كتاب فن الحرب لـسو تزو بل هو مراجعة لتنظيمات عسكرية في عصور قديمة لا تفيدك إلا في حالة اردت ان تعرف و ان تدرس تاريخ تلك التنظيمات انصح بقراءة فن لحرب لـسو تزو

  22. 4 out of 5

    Francisco Vicente

    A very good book. Goes well with Sun Tzu's "art of war" and Clausewitz's "on War".

  23. 4 out of 5

    Petra Hermans

    Strategy is only a word.

  24. 4 out of 5

    Julian Tambunan

    I’m not at any place and don’t have any right to judge or give a review about this book. If this is the only book exist in the universe...... ...... i can’t imagine what our world will become.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Douglas

    The greatest example of plagiarism.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Pj Byrne

    I was dissapointed by the book, mostly because I'd been spoiled by the philosophical musings on the art of war by authors like Clausewitz and Sun Tzu. Ultimately it comes down to the fact that Sun Tzu's 'The Art of War' and Clausewitz 'On War' are more about grand strategy and the philosophy behind them, ideas that are fundamentally unchanging. Machiavelli is clearly talking about the more tactical facets of warfare, and tactics, unlike the grand philosophy of strategy, changes far more often, a I was dissapointed by the book, mostly because I'd been spoiled by the philosophical musings on the art of war by authors like Clausewitz and Sun Tzu. Ultimately it comes down to the fact that Sun Tzu's 'The Art of War' and Clausewitz 'On War' are more about grand strategy and the philosophy behind them, ideas that are fundamentally unchanging. Machiavelli is clearly talking about the more tactical facets of warfare, and tactics, unlike the grand philosophy of strategy, changes far more often, an idea that can be clearly illustrated by a majority of the book being essentially useless musings on antiquated (by contemporary standards) tactics. The book does have it's moments, but unfortunately it's quite boring to read if you don't have a particular fascination with Renaissance warfare and the particulars of a hypothetical armies battalion size, encampment set up etc. Overall, I did enjoy the book, but my expectations were not fulfilled.

  27. 5 out of 5

    Talal

    I bought it by mistake looking for another"Art of war book" was dull hard to get through for a casual reader, but a good refrence for a scholar.

  28. 5 out of 5

    Savannah Watts

    The book Art of War, by Niccolò Machiavelli was written between 1519 and 1520. It is separated into a 'Preface' then later broken down into seven chapters. It is basically a dialogue that describes how Machiavelli thinks a proper war should be conducted. He goes into detail about proper usage of troops, where they should be put to become most useful. He also gives a very detailed description on the use of weapons such as firearms, and units such as cavalry. He does think that fire arms and caval The book Art of War, by Niccolò Machiavelli was written between 1519 and 1520. It is separated into a 'Preface' then later broken down into seven chapters. It is basically a dialogue that describes how Machiavelli thinks a proper war should be conducted. He goes into detail about proper usage of troops, where they should be put to become most useful. He also gives a very detailed description on the use of weapons such as firearms, and units such as cavalry. He does think that fire arms and cavalry are not as important as wars in the future would prove. But, he does also give a very smart and experience response because of his work when he was the Chancery of Florence. He describes how it was there that he truly saw how a government was run and what happens internally and how he wanted to fix it. Several of the things he says in this book I agree with, one of them is "Knowing how to fight made men more bold, because no one fears doing what it seems to him he has learned to do. Therefore, the ancients wanted their citizens to be trained in every warlike action." (74) This was when Machiavelli was stressing the importance of training men. He thinks that if you train your men properly there is no reason for them to be scared of fighting because they have been taught how to do so. Throughout the books he relies on the training of men to be responsible for victory in battle, but I think it takes a combination of strategy and the skill of men to achieve victory. One quote I do not agree with is one about how winning cancels any bad choice made by leaders. "A battle that you win cancels any other bad action of yours. In the same way, by losing one, all the good things worked by you before become vain." Although he points out that if you lose you become a sort of public enemy but when you win you get away with anything. Although it is something I do not agree with, it happens in wars today. For example, at the end of WWII, anything the Germans did was considered evil and the world wouldn't drop the image of the Nazi regime, but when our men committed atrocities in Japan while we were island hopping, it was okay because the Japanese picked a fight with us. Machiavelli uses excuses like this throughout the novel. I think that this is what really cause me to not like the book. But besides that, I think that Machiavelli thought long and hard about how he wanted wars to be conducted and hoped this would be the new way wars would be for years. He does agree with limited warfare, which is a good technique and shows he knows he doesn't want to completely destroy the people of the world. The claim he makes that I agree with most strongly is that war is an extension of politics. I couldn't agree with him more. I think that even back in his time wars that were conducted were a poor mans battle for a rich man's cause. That philosophy continued into the Revolution, the Civil War, all the way until Vietnam. Overall, I enjoyed reading this book. It gave me perspective as to what wars were like in the 1500's and how strangely there are still a lot of similarities. This book definitely has a bias to it, but I was well aware of that when I began reading it. This book, after all, was written purely of the opinion of Machiavelli so it would obviously have his opinions included. I think that the only way this book could be improved is if Machiavelli lived in modern times and saw the wars the world has witnessed since his time. If he had seen those wars then I think he would give an even more in depth glimpse into how wars should be handled.

  29. 5 out of 5

    Gary

    Typically when someone mentions they’re reading the Art of War, the famous book by Sun Tzu comes to mind. Niccolo Machiavelli however, more notoriously known for his work The Prince, wrote another by this same name. Written toward the later part of his life in Florence and published during the August of 1521, when it became apparent that he would not be returning to a life of public service, Machiavelli made the decision to write about warfare. Styled after Plato’s Republic, the book is based on Typically when someone mentions they’re reading the Art of War, the famous book by Sun Tzu comes to mind. Niccolo Machiavelli however, more notoriously known for his work The Prince, wrote another by this same name. Written toward the later part of his life in Florence and published during the August of 1521, when it became apparent that he would not be returning to a life of public service, Machiavelli made the decision to write about warfare. Styled after Plato’s Republic, the book is based on discussions he had with scholars and friends on whether the practices and tactics of the ancients were superior to those employed in their day. Unfortunately a great part of the book delves into the proper armaments and ordering necessary to field a victorious army, making large tracts rather boring. Of course that said, there are some interesting insights on human nature, that any good general must take heed of should they wish to field a successful campaign, drawing upon historical anecdotes over a range of periods, including the fifteenth century that was increasingly relying upon the use of artillery. But in the end it is Rome that holds his praise; which is rather romanticized throughout Machiavelli’s Art of War. Definitely something I would only recommend to readers interested in warfare tactics, or looking to expand upon their Machiavelli readings. http://www.cultureaddicthistorynerd.c...

  30. 5 out of 5

    Hans

    Machiavelli has some interesting ideas about War and differs in parts from Clausewitz. He advocates that a stable society is built upon the foundation of a well-ordered and disciplined military. This foundation is a highly trained state-militia and is held together by good leadership, discipline, love of country etc. He even goes on to say that Religion is very useful and should be utilized to compel men to fight. He believes that the best armies are primarily infantry and that the soldiers shoul Machiavelli has some interesting ideas about War and differs in parts from Clausewitz. He advocates that a stable society is built upon the foundation of a well-ordered and disciplined military. This foundation is a highly trained state-militia and is held together by good leadership, discipline, love of country etc. He even goes on to say that Religion is very useful and should be utilized to compel men to fight. He believes that the best armies are primarily infantry and that the soldiers should be farmers because they can handle the hard toil of being a soldier (there is probably a lot of truth to this). Discipline trumps passion in his opinion and will win out every time. He bases most of his assumptions on the Roman Legions and even says they provide the most excellent model of a well-structured and deadly military. Since war is inevitable because it is part of human nature the state that is the most prepared for war is also the state that is the most secure. Always bring the war to the enemy, keep the initiative, adapt if necessary, know when to retreat and when to commit all of your forces.

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