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3 Monotheistic Religions PDF, ePub eBook


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Title: 3 Monotheistic Religions
Author: Karen Armstrong
Publisher: Published by Chautauqua Institution (first published January 1st 1975)
ISBN: null
Status : FREE Rating :
4.6 out of 5

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Armstrong, a British journalist and former nun, guides us along one of the most elusive and fascinating quests of all time--the search for God. Like all beloved historians, Armstrong entertains us with deft storytelling, astounding research, and makes us feel a greater appreciation for the present because we better understand our past. Be warned: A History of God is not a Armstrong, a British journalist and former nun, guides us along one of the most elusive and fascinating quests of all time--the search for God. Like all beloved historians, Armstrong entertains us with deft storytelling, astounding research, and makes us feel a greater appreciation for the present because we better understand our past. Be warned: A History of God is not a tidy linear history. Rather, we learn that the definition of God is constantly being repeated, altered, discarded, and resurrected through the ages, responding to its followers' practical concerns rather than to mystical mandates. Armstrong also shows us how Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have overlapped and influenced one another, gently challenging the secularist history of each of these religions. --Gail Hudson

30 review for 3 Monotheistic Religions

  1. 5 out of 5

    Leslie

    Whew. I thought I'd never finish this book. But two months later, I somehow managed to get to the end. Now, what to say about it? I started this book knowing a moderate amount about the history of Christianity, a small amount about Judaism, and much too little about Islam. I relied heavily on my previous knowledge of Christianity and Judaism to make sense of Armstrong's extremely dense, often repetitive, and (to use her favorite word) esoteric prose. I found it a real challenge to keep up with he Whew. I thought I'd never finish this book. But two months later, I somehow managed to get to the end. Now, what to say about it? I started this book knowing a moderate amount about the history of Christianity, a small amount about Judaism, and much too little about Islam. I relied heavily on my previous knowledge of Christianity and Judaism to make sense of Armstrong's extremely dense, often repetitive, and (to use her favorite word) esoteric prose. I found it a real challenge to keep up with her train of thought; her chapters are very long (as well as her paragraphs) and she has no sections or headings whatsoever to help prime and guide the reader. I came away with a much fuller understanding about the evolution of the concept of God in Christianity and Judaism, and a somewhat better understanding of the origins of Islam. But not knowing much about Islam to begin with, I felt at a disadvantage as I tried to follow along and take in the massive amounts of information she shares. This is not the right book to introduce you to any of these religions. You will gain much more if you already have a moderate level of knowledge. On a personal note, as I am someone for whom religion (organized or otherwise) has played very little role in my life for close to ten years, this book sparked a great deal of introspective processes for me. Some of her writing confirmed my frustrations with organized religions while other portions encouraged me to have a more open mind about the innumerable ways to conceive of and worship God. I have appreciated this book immensely in this regard. A final note: Armstrong seems to have considerable beef with Christianity, and to an extent Judaism, and she considerably elevates Islam above the other two. Just a note to be prepared for that if you read this book. It didn't bother me too much given that I don't consider myself a member of any of the three faiths or prefer one over the other, but I can see how it might really annoy others. It's not an attempt to be objective or balanced, by any stretch.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Huda Yahya

    سيرة الله لكارين أرمسترونغ الكتاب يبحر في مفهوم الإله في الديانات الثلاثة الكبرى اليهودية - المسيحية - الإسلام لقراء الإنجليزية يمكنكم مشاهدة هذا الوثائقي الممتع والذي يعتمد على أفكار الكتاب الرئيسية https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fx4m1...

  3. 5 out of 5

    Paul Bryant

    A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH RELIGION (You may have already thought of a few, but this is my current thing.) Religious thought is metaphorical and the constant danger is that the unlettered will take the metaphor literally. For instance, the Holy Trinity in Christianity - sorting out a satisfactory formula expressing the relationships between God the Father & Jesus the Son & the Holy Spirit presented hideous problems which took around 300 years to resolve and - it seems to me - the whole enterpris A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH RELIGION (You may have already thought of a few, but this is my current thing.) Religious thought is metaphorical and the constant danger is that the unlettered will take the metaphor literally. For instance, the Holy Trinity in Christianity - sorting out a satisfactory formula expressing the relationships between God the Father & Jesus the Son & the Holy Spirit presented hideous problems which took around 300 years to resolve and - it seems to me - the whole enterprise was utterly - utterly - futile because it stemmed from a misreading of a metaphor in the New Testament, i.e. Jesus as Son of God. You don't need to figure out the relationships between metaphors, but if you think they're actually describing realities, then you do. Fundamentalists appear to be unable to either grasp the idea of metaphorical language, or, allowing them that degree of intelligence, unable to accept that the Bible is poetry which uses metaphor all the time - And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and it was not consumed. And indeed, Christ is a metaphor - that is, the idea of his incarnation, and the idea of him being a sacrifice for our sins, and the idea of salvation itself - all metaphors. Religion has its educated few and its unschooled many - the elite develop the metaphorical philosophical reading of the text and leave the credulous literal reading to the laity and they bowl along on separate levels, mostly. But then it comes unstuck. You can see the incorrect understanding of metaphor right there in the New Testament. Various parables of Jesus have been transformed by error into miracles of Jesus - the stilling of the storm, the feeding of the 5000, turning water into wine, and the weird story of the withering of the fig tree - these make no sense until you read them as parables. We recall that Jesus explicitly rejects miraculous acts of this sort in the Temptation: And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread. And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God. So these mistakes were being encrypted into the canon at the point where the oral tradition was being written down. It was simple confusion, but it sowed the seeds for centuries of wrongheadedness. Karen Armstrong makes the excellent point that by the time of the Reformation even the learned in the West had become literalistic, and that this exposed their faith to the undermining effects of science as science extended its authority. The Church painted itself into a stupid corner. If it had remained the mystical transcendental Church it wouldn't have had to make any of those numerous embarrassing climb-downs it had to do. But maybe it would have been abandoned by the majority if it had. A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH THIS BOOK Karen Armstrong is a poor writer. Other goodreaders say stuff like : My braincells are rebelling against me for continuing to read this, giving up. It's all the waffle and blather about Ultimate Reality, I just can't put myself through it. I don't want to say that I have given up on this book. I enjoyed it so far, but I just moved on... It sits here out of my guilt, and becasue I haven't given it up completely. I may go back to it anyday now haven't picked it up for several months, hope to get back to it someday I predict that there will be a new religion created by the time I finish this book Earnest readers drag themselves through this book. That can't be good. She has the knowledge but she is turgid, she has no light touch, no human anecdotes, no humour, okay what was I expecting, Bill Bryson? No, but Karen really got on my wick. She's boring. You have to keep plugging away, then another big thinker from 17th century Lithuania hoves into view and you think... hey, I haven't watched Paranormal Activity 2 yet! I did not read every word of this. i flipped forward, backwards, sideways, hemmed & hawed, put it down for months, walked around it glaring at it, hoped someone would steal it, they didn't, finally took it on holiday where there wasn't a wifi connection, and really, I think the whole thing needed some oomph. It was oomphless. It was an oomph-free zone. A FAVOURITE ANECDOTE FROM PAGE 431 Speaking as an atheist, I love this story. In fact, I revere this story. One day in Auschwitz, a group of Jews put God on trial. They charged him with betrayal and cruelty. Like Job, they found no consolation in the usual answers to the problems of evil and suffering in the midst of this current obscenity. They could find no excuse for God, no extenuating circumstances, so they found him guilty and, presumably, worthy of death. The Rabbi pronounced the verdict. Then he looked up and said that the trial was over, it was time for the evening prayer.

  4. 4 out of 5

    maha

    الكتاب موسوعة كبيرة سيستغرق وقتا طويلا لاكماله.. قراءة اساسية لمن يدرس الثيولوجيا (علم العقائد)، الميثولوجي (علم الأساطير) ومقارنة الاديان سأذكر نقطة منه علقت بذهني فهمت منه مفهوم شخصنة الاله.. عندما جسد البشر الاله بحيث يكون بعيدا، ليس كمثل اي شيء نعرفه، اصبح الاله بعيدا، ولم يعد البشر يشعرون بالقرب منه فهنا جسدته بعض الديانات بصفات نفهمها نحن البشر ونشعر بها، كي نشعر نحوه بالتآلف والقرب، وهنا اختلف المسيحيون عن بقية الأديان الابراهيمية، بحيث أنهم حولوه الى رجل، أو أب حنون محب، بينما ركز المسلمون الكتاب موسوعة كبيرة سيستغرق وقتا طويلا لاكماله.. قراءة اساسية لمن يدرس الثيولوجيا (علم العقائد)، الميثولوجي (علم الأساطير) ومقارنة الاديان سأذكر نقطة منه علقت بذهني فهمت منه مفهوم شخصنة الاله.. عندما جسد البشر الاله بحيث يكون بعيدا، ليس كمثل اي شيء نعرفه، اصبح الاله بعيدا، ولم يعد البشر يشعرون بالقرب منه فهنا جسدته بعض الديانات بصفات نفهمها نحن البشر ونشعر بها، كي نشعر نحوه بالتآلف والقرب، وهنا اختلف المسيحيون عن بقية الأديان الابراهيمية، بحيث أنهم حولوه الى رجل، أو أب حنون محب، بينما ركز المسلمون واليهود على اعطاؤه صفات بشرية (كالغضب والفرح والحب والبغض والغيرة) ونسب له اليهود صفات بشرية تدل على الضعف كـ(التعب).. الكتاب حول الى فلم وثائقي تحت نفس العنوان.. هنا الرابط له http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fx4m1S... في الفيديو أيضا ملخص اخر له http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlnnWb... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPfFx9... كانت عقيدة كارين بحد ذاتها تحيرني، كونها تركت الديانة الكاثوليكية بعد كونها راهبة.. هل هي ملحدة أو أغنوستية ترى أن الدين ظاهرة مفيدة وصحية للشعوب؟ أعتقد انه بعد السماع لمحاضراتها أنها "موحدة" تميل لفهم يهودي للاله، مع أخذها لخلاصة رسائل الديانات المونوثية الثلاث.. أدرك أنني أمارس التقنين عليها ولكن الفضول يحركنا نحن البشر لتصنيف من امامنا :)

  5. 5 out of 5

    Jan-Maat

    This is at once a very simple and a very complex book. Simple in its argument, complex in the array of detail marshalled to tell Armstrong's story. Her view, it seemed to me, was firstly that monotheism was wide spread - well beyond the limits of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam but that there was always a tension between two basic ideas within that belief across all these religions. On the one hand a faith in an objective reality of something like an old man with a beard out there somewhere who This is at once a very simple and a very complex book. Simple in its argument, complex in the array of detail marshalled to tell Armstrong's story. Her view, it seemed to me, was firstly that monotheism was wide spread - well beyond the limits of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam but that there was always a tension between two basic ideas within that belief across all these religions. On the one hand a faith in an objective reality of something like an old man with a beard out there somewhere who was generally keen on smiting people, on the other hand a subjective individual striving within oneself that can lead to a sense of the numinous ( "The mystical experience of God has certain characteristics that are common to all faiths" (p259) ). She approves of the latter, while disliking the former whose finest or worst examples depending on your point of view she finds in the Western European Catholic and Protestant traditions which finally, in her opinion, hoisted themselves on their petards by embracing a literal faith in the Bible shortly before the age of Lyle and Darwin and Mendel. Armstrong's history of God then is the history of styles and manners of belief in God. The problem with the way she does it is that she unleashes, not hell, but such a mass of prophets, mystics, and philosophers upon the reader that we can move across the thought and ideas of three or four people in a single page - almost all of whom are men, Julian of Norwich, Bridget of Sweden, and Theresa of Avila just manage to squeeze in. I did wonder how representative and reasonable some of the judgements were at times - but then this is always the case in dense surveys like this. What is particular, and maybe refreshing for some readers, is that Armstrong doesn't much like her own native Western European tradition of Christianity. Every other approach to faith comes across as simply better. Sufis, Buddhists, and Hassidic Jews among others leap out of the pages as less anxious, more compassionate, kinder, and generally less inclined to self abuse. This may or may not be fair, but in the context of a post colonial world is certainly interesting, although I suppose not original. If belief in a single God is widespread, so is faith that the grass is always greener in the next field. Still her passion and commitment towards certain kinds of manifestation of faith is clear as evidenced by phrases like "religions such as Buddhism, which have the advantage of being uncontaminated by an inadequate theism" (p251), one can't claim that she hides her point of view. The sense of her struggle with her own religious background is palpable, but also the relief and comfort that she has found through learning about the three major monotheisms. The ideal reader for this book might well be someone who for all their Jewish, Christian, or Muslim faith feels estranged or simply somewhat distanced from the particular Synagogue, Church, or Mosque they are familiar with. This is a book that can provide that reader with a broader perspective. She compares trends in Hinduism and Buddhism to the big three monotheisms, this is something she could have made more of. The way that Buddhist Nirvana is described seems to her to be analogous to the experience of God as experience by mystics from the monotheistic religions for instance. Her survey is a wealth of detail, often curious. I particularly liked her account of the disappointment of the pagan philosopher Plotinus that he didn't get to visit India to study with its sages, he had thought of joining the Roman army as a means of getting there. Somehow turning up in armour, sword in hand, doesn't strike me as the best way to introduce yourself and your philosophical longings to the wise people of a different land. Maybe a similar thought occurred to Plotinus. Another point that caught my attention was the question of if the God of Abraham and the God of Moses were one and the same, equally she didn't soft pedal the polytheistic sides of Hebrew practice prior to the Babylonian captivity. Something that Armstrong I felt did well was the sense of how ideas from one tradition oozed over to others. The influence of the pagan philosophers on Christianity is, I imagine, fairly well known, but she points out as well the interrelationships of developments in Judaism and Islam, and Islam also had a strong engagement with Aristotle in particular. She even makes Origen's self-castration, as inspired by the Gospels, sound like a reasonable action for a good half a page (view spoiler)[ which is quite an achievement (hide spoiler)] . On the downside the mass of characters can be overwhelming, and you are probably best off approaching a book like this with a reasonable background knowledge to start with. If you don't know your Avicenna from your Aquinas this book may well be a struggle.

  6. 4 out of 5

    April Sheridan

    I still can't decide if it's good or not. That's that problem with being kinda dumb.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Camille

    If I could give a book six stars, I would give them to this book. I feel like I learned something new on nearly every page. This book is truly a history book on a grand scale. It reminds me of the type of history Will Durrant wrote, where he would take a period of time and write extensively about all the facets of history within that time. Armstrong, on the other hand, takes just one facet of history and writes extensively about it over a long (4000 year) period of time. Reading it has allowed m If I could give a book six stars, I would give them to this book. I feel like I learned something new on nearly every page. This book is truly a history book on a grand scale. It reminds me of the type of history Will Durrant wrote, where he would take a period of time and write extensively about all the facets of history within that time. Armstrong, on the other hand, takes just one facet of history and writes extensively about it over a long (4000 year) period of time. Reading it has allowed me to see patterns and connections in history that I never considered before. I know I will continue to think upon what she said and use it as I try to make sense of the world. And, to make it even better, I learned recently that Karen Armstrong was a winner of the 2008 TED prize. I highly recommend her talk where she makes her wish. (I highly recommend all the TED prize winners' talks!)

  8. 5 out of 5

    Riku Sayuj

    The Tendencies of Religions A facebook conversation: Started with this post, with the following Ambedkar quote: "The Hindus criticise the Mahomedans for having spread their religion by the use of the sword. They also ridicule Christianity on the score of the Inquisition. But really speaking, who is better and more worthy of our respect—the Mahomedans and Christians who attempted to thrust down the throats of unwilling persons what they regarded as necessary for their salvation, or the Hindu who woul The Tendencies of Religions A facebook conversation: Started with this post, with the following Ambedkar quote: "The Hindus criticise the Mahomedans for having spread their religion by the use of the sword. They also ridicule Christianity on the score of the Inquisition. But really speaking, who is better and more worthy of our respect—the Mahomedans and Christians who attempted to thrust down the throats of unwilling persons what they regarded as necessary for their salvation, or the Hindu who would not spread the light, who would endeavour to keep others in darkness, who would not consent to share his intellectual and social inheritance with those who are ready and willing to make it a part of their own make-up? I have no hesitation in saying that if the Mahomedan has been cruel, the Hindu has been mean; and meanness is worse than cruelty." Response (Professor X):What is worse? A. Use force to make others join your faith B. Use force to keep out of those who want to join your faith Me: an additional dimension is there: you keep them out and then you discriminate and degrade based on religion. Professor X: I wanted to strip the discussion of dalit angle, but, YES, this has got me thinking. Me: ah. okay. wouldn't majority of early religions (tribal) been exclusivist? missionary religions were probably an innovation. which is the more natural tendency? need to study more :) Professor X: No. This man has hit the nail on the head. Hinduism is the only one that opted to have exclusion as a theme and that, I suspect, because there was no occupation effort. The same religion in south east asia saw the need to absorb locals in :) Me: Ambedkar claims elsewhere that early Hinduism was an evangelizing religion and that once caste and varna systems were hardened, it had to stop being one. if a religion obsessed with purity starts absorbing, it will also try to exclude at the same time. this will have to give rise to a varna and then even a caste system as more and more walls are erected for more and more minute exclusions. eventually the evangelizing had to stop and thus occupation. that is the chain of causation i glean from reading ambedkar, not the other ay round. what say? now, if i assume that tribal religions are exclusivist and accept this line of reasoning, it would seem to imply that religions once they pass a critical mass, will become missionary in nature (religion and politics going together). however if they do not reinvent themselves to lose completely their exclusivist tendencies (as happened with islam etc), then they will eventually reach another critical mass when they harden and cant expand anymore. with that both religious evangelism and political expansion will end. [simplistic, i know. but seems to make some sense to me...] Me: btw, Hinduism is not the only such religion. there are other religions too that are exclusivist. a good example to prop up my case would be Judaism, a more or less tribal religion which probably never reached the first critical mass point. Judaism discourages missionary activities and maintains an exclusivist doctrine, again based on purity of the chosen people. we could say that Judaism once it came close to the first critical mass reinvented itself as Christianity - an evangelist religion but with no exclusivist tendencies - and hence it didnt have to hit the second point. could spread and spread :) islam too - another variation of the same theme. Does this seem like a useful line of enquiry? Are there any books that explore the tendencies of religions? Would love to read a few.

  9. 5 out of 5

    John

    This is one of those books that make me feel woefully deficient in a certain subject. Having never taken a comparative religion class, and in fact bordering on an antiestablishment stance when it comes to organized religion, I can only conclude that this book was not the place to start. The first couple of chapters which reviewed mankinds evolution from a polythesim to the monothesims of Judiasm, Christianity, and Islam were interesting, and for me blessedly linear and understandable. From ther This is one of those books that make me feel woefully deficient in a certain subject. Having never taken a comparative religion class, and in fact bordering on an antiestablishment stance when it comes to organized religion, I can only conclude that this book was not the place to start. The first couple of chapters which reviewed mankinds evolution from a polythesim to the monothesims of Judiasm, Christianity, and Islam were interesting, and for me blessedly linear and understandable. From there things rapidly deteriorated as Armstrong ran through the impact and thought process that philosophy, mysticism, reform and enlightenment had on the three monothestic faiths. These chapters were filled with dense pondorous examples of each of these disciplines, crammed wtih foreign names and terms, forcing me to reread pages and chapters, still without making much headway. I hate to indulge myself this way, but to illustrate my point I quote from page 270 a part of a paragraph which starts, "Luria gave a new meaning to the original image of the exile of the Shekinah. It will be recalled that in the Talmud, the Rabbis had seen the Shekinah voluntarily going into exile with the Jews after the destruction of the Temple. The Zohar had identified the Shekinah with the last sefirah and made it the female aspect of divinity. In Luria's myth, the Shekinah fell with the other sefiroth when the Vessels were shattered." Granted, it is taken out of context, but it borders on reading a foreign language. And it goes on...Further compounding the problem are a lack of any headings on subgroupings in Armstrong's chapters, which are composed of paragraphs that run nearly a page long each. It is this amount of dense detail that continually makes rereading a necessity, rather than a luxury. I was tempted on multiple occasions to put this book down, and finished with a sense that I had read line for line the entire 2008 federal IRS tax code. Overall, not the place to start.

  10. 4 out of 5

    فهد الفهد

    الله والإنسان للأسف لم يحظ كتاب بهذه الأهمية بترجمة جيدة، أتمنى ألا تعاني بقية كتب كارين أرمسترونغ من ذات المشكلة، خاصة وكتبها مهمة وتتناول مواضيع متعمقة في الأديان أو التجربة الدينية، في كتابها هذا والذي تم تغيير عنوانه ليتلاءم مع الرقيب العربي – العنوان الأصلي (تاريخ الإله)-، تؤرخ أرمسترونغ للطريقة التي فهم بها الناس الإله، وهي تركز في ذلك على الديانات التوحيدية، متناولة صورة الإله في اليهودية والمسيحية والإسلام، من خلال الفرق والمذاهب الدينية التي ظهرت وتصارعت في الأديان الثلاثة. كتاب مهم جدا الله والإنسان للأسف لم يحظ كتاب بهذه الأهمية بترجمة جيدة، أتمنى ألا تعاني بقية كتب كارين أرمسترونغ من ذات المشكلة، خاصة وكتبها مهمة وتتناول مواضيع متعمقة في الأديان أو التجربة الدينية، في كتابها هذا والذي تم تغيير عنوانه ليتلاءم مع الرقيب العربي – العنوان الأصلي (تاريخ الإله)-، تؤرخ أرمسترونغ للطريقة التي فهم بها الناس الإله، وهي تركز في ذلك على الديانات التوحيدية، متناولة صورة الإله في اليهودية والمسيحية والإسلام، من خلال الفرق والمذاهب الدينية التي ظهرت وتصارعت في الأديان الثلاثة. كتاب مهم جداً، ومن الأفضل قراءته بلغته إن أمكن.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Margitte

    I haven't finished reading the book. I still plan to though, but not in one sitting. The official blurb: 'Over 700,000 copies of the original hardcover and paperback editions of this stunningly popular book have been sold. Karen Armstrong's superbly readable exploration of how the three dominant monotheistic religions of the world - Judaism, Christianity, and Islam - have shaped and altered the conception of God is a tour de force. One of Britain's foremost commentators on religious affairs, Arms I haven't finished reading the book. I still plan to though, but not in one sitting. The official blurb: 'Over 700,000 copies of the original hardcover and paperback editions of this stunningly popular book have been sold. Karen Armstrong's superbly readable exploration of how the three dominant monotheistic religions of the world - Judaism, Christianity, and Islam - have shaped and altered the conception of God is a tour de force. One of Britain's foremost commentators on religious affairs, Armstrong traces the history of how men and women have perceived and experienced God, from the time of Abraham to the present. From classical philosophy and medieval mysticism to the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and the modern age of skepticism, Armstrong performs the near miracle of distilling the intellectual history of monotheism into one compelling volume.' My reading is going extremely slow, merely because it requires concentration to read the book and I suspect that it will take a few months to get through it. However, it is an informative journey, educational in many instances, and thought-provoking throughout. It is not only the historical timeline of the development of religion (of God), the evolutionary process of polytheism to monotheism for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, but also a philosophical experience. I can only hope that all information in the book is accurate and worth learning. It certainly can be essential reading for those studying theology (science beliefs), mythology and comparative religion. The God we all know, the God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, has a history. This book tells the story as it unfolded through the ages, changed according to needs, and ultimately split people into different groups honoring the same God. Someone long ago said that people build different bridges to God, but in the end they worship their bridges instead of God. This book discusses this truth: the when, why and how of it all. The real story of mankind, widely accepted in the scientific world, is written down in the Enuma Elish, the Babilonian story of Creation which was discovered in the library of Ahurbanipal, estimated to have been written 1750 BCE. It is not the story as the Bible told it. The first few chapters were really interesting. Fascinating, in fact. But from then on it becomes a philosophical discussion of concepts and names which makes me feel dumb and an-alphabetic! But with increased concentration, and a few rereads, several rereads of the same, very long paragraphs, I finally get it all. There are several videos available on Youtube to enlighten the experience. My problem is that I constantly fall asleep. However, I do think this book is worth reading for those who are interested in an objective approach to the bridges we built to God.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Jan

    Karen Armstrong is a former Catholic nun and studied at Oxford. Her book, The Spiral Staircase, is a good description of the struggles that led to her leaving the convent. There have been several good books written on the historic Jesus Christ, but very few on the historic God. As other reviewers have noted, this is a somewhat scholarly book, which it would have to be if one wanted to thoughtfully trace back man’s evolving beliefs on God. And, yes, over a sweep of 4,000 years, evolving is clearl Karen Armstrong is a former Catholic nun and studied at Oxford. Her book, The Spiral Staircase, is a good description of the struggles that led to her leaving the convent. There have been several good books written on the historic Jesus Christ, but very few on the historic God. As other reviewers have noted, this is a somewhat scholarly book, which it would have to be if one wanted to thoughtfully trace back man’s evolving beliefs on God. And, yes, over a sweep of 4,000 years, evolving is clearly the correct word. If you apply the same tools to the study of history of God that one would apply to the study of history of anything over 4,000 years, you will see it through the lens of different periods of time. Perhaps, somewhat unfortunately for religion and for God, we are in a period marked by the predominance of rationality. Ever since Kant, philosophers have admitted the existence of a god cannot be logically supported (and of course, Kant still willingly chose to believe). So where does Ms. Armstrong take us in world after Kant, Hume, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the like? She worries about the intolerance inherent in monotheism (if I believe in the one true god, your god must be wrong). She reminds us that although the Existentialists told us we are better off without god since the pat answers and the certainty that god gives stifles our wonder of the world and negates our freedom, the growing drug addiction and crime rates are not signs of a spiritually healthy society. Apparently although Ms. Armstrong left organized religion, she never left her search for spirituality. I found the best statement of her conclusion was actually in The Spiral Staircase: “Compassion has been advocated by all the great faiths because it has been found to be the safest and surest means of attaining enlightenment because it dethrones the ego from the center of our lives and puts others there, breaking down the carapace of selfishness that holds us back from the experience of the sacred.” Interestingly, Huxley, who wrote the magnificent Perennial Philosophy on the similarities of mystical experiences across all religions said “It is a bit embarrassing to have been concerned with the human problem all one's life and find at the end that one has no more to offer by way of advice than 'try to be a little kinder.” ' A fascinating book that can be recommended to any thoughtful seeker about spiritual matters.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Kaelan (Κάϊλαν)

    ***** Nuances Of The Religious Tradition ***** This was a great book that seriously, seriously bolstered my understanding of the history of God, and has ultimately ignited an interest in me to read further books on the more specific areas of religious practice (there is a massive 'further reading' section at the back that I look forward to raiding). As such, I had a number of things I wanted to say in my review, yet, I think a quick bit of advise would suffice as an alternative. Unless you're movi ***** Nuances Of The Religious Tradition ***** This was a great book that seriously, seriously bolstered my understanding of the history of God, and has ultimately ignited an interest in me to read further books on the more specific areas of religious practice (there is a massive 'further reading' section at the back that I look forward to raiding). As such, I had a number of things I wanted to say in my review, yet, I think a quick bit of advise would suffice as an alternative. Unless you're moving into the field of Theology (in which case I doubt you'll read this anyway) I would advise NOT to try and kill yourself over remembering every name, every sub-catogary and every belief system held about God thought this book. You'll kill your enjoyment, and ultimately the point of the book along with it. Instead, try and cultivate a curious, open attitude whilst allowing yourself to be guided through the pages of Karen Armstrong's hard earned endeavour. I found that I enjoyed this text immensely when simply learning about how human beings tried to understand the ineffable. The different people who went up against this question have come up with some interesting thought trails, and it's quite fun to see how societies throughout time have deviated into their own systems of understanding, only for some of them to come to the same conclusion after much difference in doctrine. My only other advise would be to test yourself whilst reading this. See where you stand with your beliefs after reading about the God of Mystics, then come back and re-evaluate. Believe me, you won't think quite the same afterwards. Ultimately, this is just another story of human kind trying to make sense of what it is we're doing here, and I believe if the reader imagines this whilst reading A History of God, they won't be disappointed with the result.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Arief Rahman

    Karen Armstrong yang dulu adalah seorang biarawati dan kemudian meninggalkan ordo nya, kini lebih terkenal sebagai pemerhati dan komentator agama-agama dunia. Sudah banyak buku yang ia tulis yang mengangkat tema keagamaan dan juga biografi tokoh agama seperti Nabi Muhammad dan Sidharta Gautama. Kali ini dalam Sejarah Tuhan (gold edition diterbitkan Mizan tahun 2012) Armstrong membahas dengan lugas, secara gamblang namun mudah dipahami tentang tiga agama monotheis terbesar di dunia: Yahudi, Krist Karen Armstrong yang dulu adalah seorang biarawati dan kemudian meninggalkan ordo nya, kini lebih terkenal sebagai pemerhati dan komentator agama-agama dunia. Sudah banyak buku yang ia tulis yang mengangkat tema keagamaan dan juga biografi tokoh agama seperti Nabi Muhammad dan Sidharta Gautama. Kali ini dalam Sejarah Tuhan (gold edition diterbitkan Mizan tahun 2012) Armstrong membahas dengan lugas, secara gamblang namun mudah dipahami tentang tiga agama monotheis terbesar di dunia: Yahudi, Kristen dan Islam. Dalam bab pendahuluan ada secuil kisah ketika Armstrong berada dalam sebuah ordo Katolik dan keluarnya dari ini yang melatarbelakangi ia menulis Sejarah Tuhan. Cerita ini menjadi awal yang menarik dan juga pembukaan dari pembahasan yang panjang dan padat akan buku ini. Bab-bab berikutnya adalah komentar Armstrong tentang sejarah "pencarian Tuhan" yang bermula dari agama-agama politheisme Mesopotamia dan bagaimana keyakinan mereka bersinergi dengan kisah pencarian Tuhan oleh Abraham dan sejarah awal Yudaisme. Pembahasan kemudian berlanjut dalam sejarah iman Kristiani dan bagaimana konsepsi Trinitas menjadi diterima dalam keyakinan Kristen. Agama terakhir yang dibahas adalah Islam dan hubungan agama yang dibawa Rasulullah ini terhadap 2 agama sebelumnya. Tak hanya tentang sejarah Tuhan yang muncul dalam Yahudi, Kristen dan Islam saja namun Armstrong juga membahas tentang perkembangan spritualisme dalam ketiga agama tersebut terutama dalam hal filsafat dan mistikisme. Menariknya Armstrong menerangkan bahwa sufisme Islam mempengaruhi juga Kabbalah Yahudi. Terakhir Armstrong memberikan penjelasan tentang wajah ketuhanan yang baru dalam era Pencerahan, fundamentalis dan revolusi modern. Hal ini ditutup dengan komentarnya tentang bagaimana nasib Tuhan dan agama di masa sekarang. Armstrong dalam bukunya memberikan pemahaman yang lebih luas akan sejarah agama samawi. Sangat seru untuk jadi bahan diskusi. Buku yang patut dibaca semua orang agar menyegarkan kita kembali tentang makna sejarah atas ketuhanan itu sendiri dan bagaimana lika liku perkembangan agama di dunia.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Palsay

    Buku ini memang tebal, hardcover pinjaman neng Erry. Ternyata benar kata broda Graha, meski tebal (dan gada gambarnya ;)), namun tidak membosankan untuk dibaca. Dalam buku ini, Ms. Armstrong menitik beratkan pada tiga agama samawi di dunia, dengan sedikit meyinggung Buddha, Hindu dan kepercayaan lainnya. Dengan merujuk pada para Tokoh filsafat dan religi dari masa kebudayaan Pagan hingga agama modern, Ms. Armstrong secara sabar menuntun pembaca untuk menemukan benang merah pada ketiga agama besar Buku ini memang tebal, hardcover pinjaman neng Erry. Ternyata benar kata broda Graha, meski tebal (dan gada gambarnya ;)), namun tidak membosankan untuk dibaca. Dalam buku ini, Ms. Armstrong menitik beratkan pada tiga agama samawi di dunia, dengan sedikit meyinggung Buddha, Hindu dan kepercayaan lainnya. Dengan merujuk pada para Tokoh filsafat dan religi dari masa kebudayaan Pagan hingga agama modern, Ms. Armstrong secara sabar menuntun pembaca untuk menemukan benang merah pada ketiga agama besar tersebut, yang pada akhirnya membawa kita pada keseragaman konsep pemikiran mengenai Tuhan. Salah satu yang saya tangkap adalah, meski setengah mati kita mencoba merasionalkan keberadaanNya, pada akhirnya harus mengakui bahwa Ia memang tak terjangkau akal dan dimensi ke-mahlukan kita. Selain memusatkan perhatian pada akar pemikiran filosofis, mistis, religius dan modern, dibahas juga fenomena lahirnya atheis-me pada abad 20 an 21 yang kemungkinan salah satu sebabnya adalah tragedi holocaust, saat manusia mulai merasa ditingalkan Tuhan (?), tentunya tanpa mengesampingkan perkembangan teknologi dan ilmu pasti yang dirasa lebih rasional daripada mengharapkan semacam "penampakan wujud Tuhan" dalam mengatasi persoalan manusia, semacam yang sering dialami para Nabi dan orang suci yang diceritakan dalam kitab suci maupun cerita-cerita leluhur kita. Yang saya kagumi dari penulis adalah idenya mempertanyakan Tuhan dan menghubungkannya pada konsep pemahaman yang ada di dunia sejak jaman paganisme hingga saat ini, riset yang cukup mendalam mengenainya, serta usahanya untuk tetap obyektif dalam memaparkan hal yang sensitif ini. Nah kalau sudah begini, buku ini bisa di HM-in juga ga yaaaa??? *lirik Erry*

  16. 4 out of 5

    Jay Delorenzis

    This is a phenomenal book. I've read this about 3 times. It has completely opened my mind about how religion works in the world. Karen Armstrong uses mind-numbing details to make her case as how the Bible became written and how we are to regard it. At the same time, we can have a personal relationship with that Being we call God. Religion is something purely human-made about a phenomena that is undeniable--God exists and He can exist purely for the benefit of the individual, however he or she de This is a phenomenal book. I've read this about 3 times. It has completely opened my mind about how religion works in the world. Karen Armstrong uses mind-numbing details to make her case as how the Bible became written and how we are to regard it. At the same time, we can have a personal relationship with that Being we call God. Religion is something purely human-made about a phenomena that is undeniable--God exists and He can exist purely for the benefit of the individual, however he or she defines God. This book is not for the light reader. It demands much attention and several rereads. I suggest reading the book quickly through first, to understand what the author is saying. Then concentrate on each chapter as a separate entity. Don't worry about understanding further chapters until earlier chapters are understood. I've underlined the original book until there was hardly a bare page in the earlier part of the book. I consider this one of my all-time favorite books. It is about time for another read.

  17. 5 out of 5

    [Name Redacted]

    Karen Armstrong has no background in history nor in the academic study of religion, and it shows. This book's approach to the three Abrahamic religions is overly simplistic, presenting only Armstrong's often-erroneous views of these three prominent religions with almost no grounding in historical fact. She picks and chooses which sources to cite in accordance with her own biases and agenda, and it is clear that however much distance she might put between her life as a nun and her life as an armc Karen Armstrong has no background in history nor in the academic study of religion, and it shows. This book's approach to the three Abrahamic religions is overly simplistic, presenting only Armstrong's often-erroneous views of these three prominent religions with almost no grounding in historical fact. She picks and chooses which sources to cite in accordance with her own biases and agenda, and it is clear that however much distance she might put between her life as a nun and her life as an armchair historian, she will never be able to escape her Catholic origins. Books like this are part of the reason why so many non-academics have such a poor understanding of the history of religion in the world, and do little more than contribute to the cloud of misinformation which surrounds the field.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Naufal RM

    Dari awal baca buku ini, gue udah nggak yakin bisa nulis review-nya. Ini tipe buku yang bagus, tapi susah dibikin ulasannya. Namun, gue rasa gue harus mencobanya. Meski tidak sempurna... Well, dari yang gue pahami setelah baca, buku ini menjelaskan sejarah PERSEPSI dan PENGALAMAN manusia tentang Tuhan. So, buku ini nggak menjelaskan apakah Tuhan itu ada atau tidak. Tapi, bagaimana sih manusia, di tiap zaman dan periode, memandang sosok yang diagungkan alias Tuhan itu sendiri. Buku tebal ini tidak Dari awal baca buku ini, gue udah nggak yakin bisa nulis review-nya. Ini tipe buku yang bagus, tapi susah dibikin ulasannya. Namun, gue rasa gue harus mencobanya. Meski tidak sempurna... Well, dari yang gue pahami setelah baca, buku ini menjelaskan sejarah PERSEPSI dan PENGALAMAN manusia tentang Tuhan. So, buku ini nggak menjelaskan apakah Tuhan itu ada atau tidak. Tapi, bagaimana sih manusia, di tiap zaman dan periode, memandang sosok yang diagungkan alias Tuhan itu sendiri. Buku tebal ini tidak menjelaskan sejarah realitas, tapi sejarah persepsi. Gagasan tentang Tuhan ternyata punya sejarah tersendiri karena setiap kelompok manusia dalam tiap periode memiliki pandangan yang berbeda mengenai citra Tuhan. Untungnya, Bu Armstrong menyusun materi buku ini dengan sistematis karena timeline sejarahnya dibuat secara linear. Narasinya pun mudah dicerna. Alhasil, kita yang baca pun gampang memahaminya. Kayak baca buku sejarah aja. Berawal dari periode agama kuno seperti Zoroaster dan Pagan di daerah dekat Sungai Tigris dan Eufrat. Terus, lanjut ke masa agama Yahudi dengan sejarah yang bikin gue tercengang karena sering banget diceritakan bahwa bangsa Yahudi diusir dan harus pindah dari satu wilayah ke wilayah lainnya. Kemudian, lanjut ke masa Kristen dengan penjelasan Trinitasnya. Lalu, ke masa Islam dengan konsep keesaannya. Penjelasan sejarah tiga agama samawi itu cukup lengkap. Kita jadi tau jatuh-bangun dan awal-awal tiap kaum mempertahannkan keyakinannya. Selain itu, gue jadi paham ternyata tiga agama ini berasal dari satu akar yang sama. Tapi, kenapa sekarang jadi saling musuhan ya? hhh Buku ini nggak hanya jelasin tentang sejarah tiga agama samawi. Dijelaskan juga priode setelah Islam, yaitu seputar para filosof di Yunani, ajaran mistik Kabala, era reformasi agama alias terbentuknya Protestan, abad pertengahan atau masa reinesans di Eropa, sampai akhirnya masa modern dengan pahan ateisme yang dianut banyak orang. Selain itu, disingung juga agama non-samawi, seperti Hindu, Buddha, Konghucu, dll. Jadi, penjelasannya sejarahnya pun lebih variatif. Intinya gitu sih. Semoga racauan gue ini sedikit banyak membuat orang yang baca review ini (semoga aja ada) tertarik untuk membaca Sejarah Tuhan. Bukan apa-apa sih. Untuk mayoritas kita yang beragama karena "ikut" orangtua, buku ini bisa jadi bacaan bagus untuk mengenal sejarah Tuhan agama sendiri, serta agama lain. Jadi, biar punya pandangan lebih beragam lagi.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Eric_W

    I know I'm an atheist and all, but I still enjoy Armstrong. Wrote this review several years ago: Rarely does one come across a book that is recognized as erudite, essential, and readable simultaneously. Karen Armstrong's The History of God has brilliantly analyzed the rise of fundamentalism as a reaction to the emphasis on logos of the Enlightenment as opposed to mythos that had been essential to one's view of the world. "The economic changes over the last four hundred years have been accompanied I know I'm an atheist and all, but I still enjoy Armstrong. Wrote this review several years ago: Rarely does one come across a book that is recognized as erudite, essential, and readable simultaneously. Karen Armstrong's The History of God has brilliantly analyzed the rise of fundamentalism as a reaction to the emphasis on logos of the Enlightenment as opposed to mythos that had been essential to one's view of the world. "The economic changes over the last four hundred years have been accompanied by immense social, political, and intellectual revolutions, with the development of an entirely different, scientific and rational, concept of the nature of truth; and once again, a radical religious change has become necessary." As science and technology began to become associated with such visible successes in overcoming disease and social ills, the tendency was to believe that logos (rational, scientific thinking related exactly to facts and external realities) was the only “means to truth and began to discount mythos [that which is timeless and constant, “looking back to the origins of life . . to the deepest levels of the human mind . . . unconcerned with practical matters” and rooted in the unconscious, that which helps us through the day, mythological stories not intended to be literal, but conveying truth:] as false and superstitious.” The temptation is to think of mythos as meaning myth. Inj this context that would be incorrect. Armstrong uses this word as it relates to mystery and mysticism, rooted ultimately in traditional biblical and Islamic history “which gives meaning to life, but cannot be explained in rational terms.”Logos, however, was unable to assuage pain and suffering leading to a vacuum the fundamentalists sought to revive. The danger unseen by modern fundamentalists is that they have tried to imbue mythos with an element of literalism essential to logos. The difference between these two concepts forms the basis for the battle between modernism and fundamentalism. She traces the beginning of the fundamentalist movement back to the time of Columbus when a crisis occurred in Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella expelled both Muslims and Jews from Spain. The three religious groups had actually coexisted quite happily and profitably together for several centuries, but the prospect of modernity and threats from a new world view, science, threatened age-old traditions and myths. The fundamentalist movement was an attempt by traditionalists to retain a sectarian view of the world. For many of these people the world can be divided into two camps: good and evil and those forces that are not allied with their own narrow view of the world are labeled as evil. That these believes are rooted in fear does not lessen their impact or importance to the faithful. Often an arrogance and condescension – I plead guilty here – make secularists insensitive to those who feel their religious beliefs have been undermined and challenged. The seemingly irreconcilable difference between rationalism and mysticism perhaps make militant fundamentalism inevitable. The danger for fundamentalist lies in their attempts to turn mythos into logos, e.g., have sacred texts be read literally and inerrantly as one would read a scientific text. That may lead to inevitable discrepancies between observation and belief that may hasten the defeat of religion. Of great benefit, is Armstrong's clear explanation of the differences and conflicts that exist in Islam. Shiite and Sunni branches represent very different interpretations of a major faith. The eventual outcome of the dichotomy of secular versus sectarian remains unknown. What is apparent is that fundamentalism cannot tolerate pluralism or democracy and compromise seems unlikely. The author identifies two major threads in the development of fundamentalism: (a) fear of the modern world and (b) that the response to fear is to try to create an alternative society by preaching "an ideology of exclusion, hatred, and even violence." She warns at the end of the book, "If fundamentalists must evolve a more compassionate assessment of their enemies in order to be true to their religious traditions, secularists must also be more faithful to the benevolence, tolerance, and respect for humanity which characterizes modern culture at its best, and address themselves more emphatically to the fears, anxieties, and needs which so many of their fundamentalist neighbors experience but which no society can safely ignore."

  20. 5 out of 5

    Drake

    While this is an excellent summary of the history of the idea of God in Abrahamic religion, and I highly recommend it, I cannot give it five stars for third reasons. First, the author is overly generous in her assumptions concerning the literal interpretation of myth. For example, she asserts that the creation myths of Sumeria, Canaan, and Egypt were not intended to explain the origins of the world. Second, in her attempts at syncretism she sometimes overlooks very real, significant and extremel While this is an excellent summary of the history of the idea of God in Abrahamic religion, and I highly recommend it, I cannot give it five stars for third reasons. First, the author is overly generous in her assumptions concerning the literal interpretation of myth. For example, she asserts that the creation myths of Sumeria, Canaan, and Egypt were not intended to explain the origins of the world. Second, in her attempts at syncretism she sometimes overlooks very real, significant and extremely relevant differences between religions. Finally, she cites original sources extensively, but fails to cite any of the critical sources from which she draws; when the Higher Criticism is introduced, it is not even referenced by that name, let alone any of its proponents. Still, it is a very good guide to the development of mystical (rather than theological) thought in the three Abrahamic religions, and I recommend it especially for those who, like me, disagree with its final conclusions.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Anggun

    stop in the mid of book, maksud hati ingin mendapat pencerahan terkait sejarah agama2 monoteisme tapi bukannya semakin tercerahkan tapi malah semakin bingung. mungkin sebaiknya harus memiliki pengetahuan teologi yg memadai terlebih dahulu sebelum membaca buku ini. buku ini juga menunjukkan bahwa Tuhan terlalu besar dan agung untuk dibahas dan dipahami secara rasional. perubahan definisi dan pemahaman akan Tuhan di tiap jaman dan bangsa bukan berarti bahwa Tuhan selalu berubah2 mengikuti perkemba stop in the mid of book, maksud hati ingin mendapat pencerahan terkait sejarah agama2 monoteisme tapi bukannya semakin tercerahkan tapi malah semakin bingung. mungkin sebaiknya harus memiliki pengetahuan teologi yg memadai terlebih dahulu sebelum membaca buku ini. buku ini juga menunjukkan bahwa Tuhan terlalu besar dan agung untuk dibahas dan dipahami secara rasional. perubahan definisi dan pemahaman akan Tuhan di tiap jaman dan bangsa bukan berarti bahwa Tuhan selalu berubah2 mengikuti perkembangan jaman, tetapi lebih karena keterbatasan manusia untuk memahami Tuhan dan pemahaman manuasia akan Tuhan pun pada akhirnya mengikuti kebutuhan spiritual mereka. terlalu naif bagi manusia untuk memahami dan mendefinisikan Tuhan, kecuali meyakiniNya sebagai penguasa alam yang Maha Segala. not recommended for those who are in the process of seeking their true faith.

  22. 5 out of 5

    David

    The most comprehensive, exhaustive, and fascinating study of the Abrahamic religions and how they have changed over a few thousand years. Of definite interest to both religious and non-religious folks. Absolutely fascinating, but be warned: it is very dense, well-documented and cited, and reads much like a textbook (though a very engaging one). Over 100 pages of endnotes, a glossary, extensive bibliography with annotations for further reading, and fortunately, copious amounts of space in the fro The most comprehensive, exhaustive, and fascinating study of the Abrahamic religions and how they have changed over a few thousand years. Of definite interest to both religious and non-religious folks. Absolutely fascinating, but be warned: it is very dense, well-documented and cited, and reads much like a textbook (though a very engaging one). Over 100 pages of endnotes, a glossary, extensive bibliography with annotations for further reading, and fortunately, copious amounts of space in the front and back of the book for microscopic notes on topics of interest. Brilliant, thought-provoking, prescient, and challenging.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Michael Finocchiaro

    Karen Armstrong does an outstanding job of describing the rise of the world's three most important religions besides Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism. It is a daunting undertaking which she absolutely masters from end to end. I keep saying this in reviews, but with all the slander of islam in on Fox, CNN, TF1, etc and the long history on anti-Semitism particularly here in Europe, it is critical for truly understanding and interpreting our modern world to understand where The Big Three came fr Karen Armstrong does an outstanding job of describing the rise of the world's three most important religions besides Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism. It is a daunting undertaking which she absolutely masters from end to end. I keep saying this in reviews, but with all the slander of islam in on Fox, CNN, TF1, etc and the long history on anti-Semitism particularly here in Europe, it is critical for truly understanding and interpreting our modern world to understand where The Big Three came from, how they are similar and how they are different.

  24. 4 out of 5

    د. حمدان

    الله والإنسان – كارن أرمسترونغ صدر هذا الكتاب لأول مرة عام 1993 وكان بعنوان "تاريخ الله: رحلة الـ 4000 عام مع اليهودية، المسيحية، والإسلام". ولا أدري ما السبب الذي دعا المترجم لتغيير هذا العنوان المعبر تماماً عن محتوى إلى الاسم الآخر "الله والإنسان".. ولم أجد أي مبرر لذلك. وبمجرد صدور هذا الكتاب تصدر قوائم الأكثر مبيعاً، ويعدّ لحد اليوم، أحد أشهر الكتب التي تحدثت في موضوعه. يقع هذا الكتاب في 11 فصلاً، على امتداد 417 صفحة. وأعتقد أنه يجدر بي أن أحذو حذو الكاتبة فأفسر ما يحاول هذا الكتاب قوله في بدا الله والإنسان – كارن أرمسترونغ صدر هذا الكتاب لأول مرة عام 1993 وكان بعنوان "تاريخ الله: رحلة الـ 4000 عام مع اليهودية، المسيحية، والإسلام". ولا أدري ما السبب الذي دعا المترجم لتغيير هذا العنوان المعبر تماماً عن محتوى إلى الاسم الآخر "الله والإنسان".. ولم أجد أي مبرر لذلك. وبمجرد صدور هذا الكتاب تصدر قوائم الأكثر مبيعاً، ويعدّ لحد اليوم، أحد أشهر الكتب التي تحدثت في موضوعه. يقع هذا الكتاب في 11 فصلاً، على امتداد 417 صفحة. وأعتقد أنه يجدر بي أن أحذو حذو الكاتبة فأفسر ما يحاول هذا الكتاب قوله في بداية مراجعتي هذه قبل المضي قدماً فيها أكثر من ذلك. لقد وضحت أرمسترونغ غايتها من هذا الكتاب بوضوح منذ الصفحات الأولى؛ باعتباره رحلة خلال أربعة آلاف عام من تطور مفهوم الله لدى البشر. ولكن، لماذا أربعة آلاف عام مما قد يشكل تاريخاً للأديان التوحيدية الثلاث الكبرى فقط ؟ فنجد أرمسترونغ تجيبنا عن هذا السؤال المهم بحق؛ لأن مفهوم الإله الواحد في الشكل الذي اتخذته الأديان الثلاثة يشكل بداية تطور مفهوم ناضج للإلوهية لدى الإنسان، وهي عودة لمفهوم الألوهية الأول الذي عرفته البشرية قديماً، وقبل أن تكون هناك الأديان الوثنية، حسب نظرية شميدت في نشوء الأديان. لنتفق، بأنه لا يمكن إثبات أو نفي نظرية شميدت على أي حال. وقد يتبادر في ذهن القاريء المستجد في مثل هذه المواضيع تساؤل أو بالأحرى دهشة بأن يأتي هذا الكتاب مع مفهوم الإله وكأنه إنتاج بشري. وهنا، يجدر بي التوضيح بأن القاريء في علوم الأديان والأساطير أن يعتاد على ذلك، فلن يجد ما هو سوى ذلك هنا.. لسبب بسيط يمكن ادراكه من اسم هذا العلم، فلم يتم جمع الأديان والأساطير تحت عنوان واحد عبثاً ! إن العلم بصفته التجريبية، لا يستطيع التعامل مع ما هو موصوف بكونه ما وراء الطبيعة. ولهذا السبب، فإننا نجد تصنيفين رئيسيين في العلوم عموماً؛ العلوم الطبيعية وتحتها تندرج كل العلوم التجريبية من كيمياء، وأحياء، وفيزياء، وغيرها، والعلوم الإنسانية والتي تندرج تحتها علوم الإجتماع، والأدب، التاريخ، والإقتصاد، والسياسة والأسطورة والأديان وغيرها.. تبدأ أرمسترونع رحلتها مع فكرة الإله الواحد الأحد والإرهاصات الأولى للعودة إلى هذا المفهوم مع اليهودية، ومن ثم تبدأ بالإنتقال تدريجياً، عبر الزمن إلى المسيحية، فالإسلام، إلى إله الفلاسفة، إلى إله المتصوفين، إلى إله المصلحين، إلى عصر التنوير، فالقرن التاسع عشر، وأخيراً، إلى ما يمكن أن يتطور إليه مفهوم الله في المستقبل. لا بد للمرء أن يعجب بطريقة تقديم الأفكار في هذا الكتاب وترتيبها بطريقة متسلسلة لم تكن لتخطر على بال القاريء قبل هذا الكتاب. ومما لا شك فيه، أنه قد أثار في داخلي العديد من الأفكار والتي ستكون حتماً جزءً ما من مقالات مستقبلية في هذا الموضوع. لماذا لا أشملها في هذه المراجعة ؟ لأن كل فكرة من هذه، هي مثيرة للإهتمام لدرجة أنها تستحق الإسهاب ولا أريد لهذه المراجعة أن تطول لهذه الدرجة. يمكننا تقديم ملاحظة شديدة الأهمية كخلاصة لهذا الكتاب، وهي أن البشرية تطور مفهومها عن الله حسب نضوجها وبشكل ينسجم مع حاجياتها وتطورها الإجتماعي والنفسي والفكري. والتحدي الرئيسي لهذا المفهوم يتشكل في شكلين من الإلحاد؛ الأول، هو ارتداد عن الإيمان لأن الله في نظرهم؛ إما عجز عن إيقاف الشر، أو أنه لم يرغب في إيقاف الشر، وهو في كلا الحالتين لم يعد يستحق العبادة، وهذا ما نراه في تلك المحاكمة الشهيرة من اليهود لله والتي أدانوا الله فيها ولكنهم حين أعلنوا نهاية الجلسة أشاروا إلى أنه قد حان موعد الصلاة ! وهذا التناقض هو رمز للصراع الذي يعيشه الإنسان المضطهد؛ فهو قد وصل إلى قناعة أن إلهه العظيم الذي يفترض به مساعدته أمام جبروت هذا الكون، قد تخلى عنه ولم يفعل من أجله شيئاً يرفع عنه العذاب والمعاناة، ومن جهة أخرى، فإن الإنسان لم يفقد تلك الحاجة النفسية للإيمان بشيء ما.. وهذا ما يدفعهم لإقامة الصلاة في نهاية المطاف. أما الإلحاد الثاني، فهو الإلحاد المبني على فكرة أنه لم تعد هناك حاجة للإله، فالإنسان يستطيع أن يقود الكون من هذه اللحظة. ونحن نستطيع أن نرى ذلك في الإدعاءات التي تقول بموت الإله بدوافع علمية تستند إلى نظرية التطور والكون السرمدي الذي لا بداية له.. ولا نهاية ! وبغض النظر عن الإنتقادات العلمية والفكرية لهذه النظريات.. إلا أنه يتوجب التسليم بأنها تشكل تحدياً موجوداً. والآن، يجدر بي التوضيح لمَ فرّقت بين هذين الشكلين للإلحاد رغم أنهما يقودان إلى نتيجة واحدة. والجواب سهل؛ الأول، هو إلحاد عاطفي، لم يستند إلى أدلة عقلية أو علمية، إنما هي أسباب شخصية، فالملحد من هذا النوع قد تعرّض إلى صدمة عنيفة جعلته يفقد إيمانه بأن الله يحميه، أما الثاني، فهو إلحاد محض عقلي، لم يتعرض إلى صدمة عنيفة تجعله يتحول إلى النوع الأول، بل هو يرى أنه لا توجد حاجة عقلية لوجود الله لأنه وجد أسباباً أخرى لخلق الكون والحياة. ولربما نستطيع أن نلاحظ أن الإلحاد الأول لم ينتظر الإلحاد الثاني كي يوجد، هو موجود بغض النظر عن وجود الإلحاد الثاني. لقد قرر الملحد من النوع الأول أن يترك الإيمان، بغض النظر عما إذا كان محقاً بذلك أم لا. أما الثاني، فهو قد ترك الإيمان لأنه يعتقد حقاً أنه محق بذلك، أو لنقل أنه لا يرى بوجود حاجة ما للإيمان بشيء آخر عدا ذاته. أتمنى أن يمدّ الله في عمري، كي لا يكون هذا الكتاب آخر عهد لي مع أرمسترونغ. فقد كانت تجربة قراءته، رحلة طويلة، ولكنها حتماً مستحقة.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Tom Ippen

    This book would be difficult to process for anyone who didn't have at least some background in religious studies. It was recommended to me as a great way to "jump in" to the history of Abrahamic religions, but Armstrong's sources and references are obscure and complex. Beyond that, this book is bursting with tons of fantastic comparisons between Abrahamic and Eastern beliefs, and the level of detail in documenting every theological change, movement and debate for the last few millennia is incred This book would be difficult to process for anyone who didn't have at least some background in religious studies. It was recommended to me as a great way to "jump in" to the history of Abrahamic religions, but Armstrong's sources and references are obscure and complex. Beyond that, this book is bursting with tons of fantastic comparisons between Abrahamic and Eastern beliefs, and the level of detail in documenting every theological change, movement and debate for the last few millennia is incredible (particularly on all the middle-eastern goings-on between 300BCE and 400 CE, which a major chunk of the book is devoted to). The dissection of Islam was handled with an informed respect, and makes this book a useful guide for those whose knowledge on the subject is minimal (like myself). The history and competing image of the Koran is given a good deal of the spotlight-treatment, which I found very helpful. Besides covering the major movements of the Abrahamic faiths, Armstrong breaks down all the divisions that arose that most of us don't consider when analyzing the standpoint and structure these faiths at any given time; she is always careful to include the stance and specifics of the dissenters whenever she makes a statement on the more commonly-known positions of the Church or governing religious body. This is a good read.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Adrian Stumpp

    Armstrong, a former Catholic nun, traces the histories of Christ, Yahweh, and Allah from their common roots to the present, taking brief excursions along the way to explore some of the more interesting and eccentirc sects that have sprung up and usually been exterminated with extreme prejudice along the way. She points out, for example, that all three trace their claims of Truth back to a single man, Abraham, who believed in a god named El, who is none of the three major monotheistic deities of Armstrong, a former Catholic nun, traces the histories of Christ, Yahweh, and Allah from their common roots to the present, taking brief excursions along the way to explore some of the more interesting and eccentirc sects that have sprung up and usually been exterminated with extreme prejudice along the way. She points out, for example, that all three trace their claims of Truth back to a single man, Abraham, who believed in a god named El, who is none of the three major monotheistic deities of the west. Oh, and while Abraham did worship a single god, he believed in many gods. Kabbalah, Gnosticism, Catherism, Sufism, and others are explored. Armstrong does a particularly good job in my opinion of distilling complex theological principles into succinct, easy to understand language without demeaning or simplifying the complexity of issues like the nature of faith, the mysteries of trinity, the Council of Nicaea, the process of biblical redaction, the particularities of Orthodox iconography, and the subtle differences between canonical and liturgical traditons. A very good read.

  27. 4 out of 5

    Barry

    This book by Karen Armstrong covers the development of the world's three major monotheistic faiths. Although I am incredibly interested in the subject, this book was a tough read for me. It is very dense with information and I probably ended up skimming the text more than I should have. I'll most likely end up re-reading it some time down the road to gain a greater appreciation of the subject.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Arun Divakar

    You are plagued with this feeling at times which can most aptly be described as nagging. At times of mental or physical idleness, there is this thought that slowly seeps into your mind and like an ink stain spreads all over you. I thought that once the review for this book was typed and posted, I had gotten done with it but it was not to be. There was still a clamor in my mind that I might not have done justice to the book with the review I put in. Things came full circle when a friend who happe You are plagued with this feeling at times which can most aptly be described as nagging. At times of mental or physical idleness, there is this thought that slowly seeps into your mind and like an ink stain spreads all over you. I thought that once the review for this book was typed and posted, I had gotten done with it but it was not to be. There was still a clamor in my mind that I might not have done justice to the book with the review I put in. Things came full circle when a friend who happens to follow my reviews asked me ‘You didn’t much want to write a review for this book, did you ?’ and that made me want to attempt a review for this book once again and so here goes : Growing up in India is to grow up with Gods all around you. From a young age, I had seen people approaching God for reasons which are purely domestic and personal in nature. Looking at my time as school goer, I can say with a fair degree of certainty that students (myself included) look for a divine intervention prior to attempting a major exam. There was even an anecdote of a celebrity who mentioned about a time when he wrote his high school exams and had no hope of clearing them. The day before results were due, he goes to a place of worship and with a rather embarrassed face tells God : ‘I mean….you know….well…I am not saying you should get me through but then if I don’t make it then people would think you didn’t do your job well…so what say ?’ and he ended up passing the exam. He might have romanticized the whole episode but then these are little occurrences that cement our belief in this unseen entity. Belief also takes rather exaggerated forms too, for example did you know that there is a place of worship dedicated exclusively for blessings to get a visa to the US ? It might appear laughable to a lot of us but for those who tend to strongly believe in this aspect, the belief is strengthened with each new visa getting approved. Lighter side apart, not all forms of belief are laughable. A while ago, I did happen to spend some time with a doctor who told me of instances where patients with life threatening medical scenarios have managed to pull through simply by the power of their mind and their unshakable belief in an entity that they place higher than all forms of life on Earth. The interpretations that humanity have ascribed to God have turned this abstraction into both a boon and a bane. A boon in the strength of mind it imparts to people and a bane in terms of the atrocities committed in the name of religion. The scope of Karen Armstrong’s book is a detailed introspection on the nature of God as seen by the three major monotheistic religions : Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The centuries of history behind these religions means that the narrative is broad, exhaustive and rather difficult to grapple with. Armstrong however plods determinedly ahead and tries to make sense of how the abstraction of God has achieved shape and form among the followers of these religions. What is most interesting to note here is how the same root ( a belief in a supernatural, omnipotent entity) gave rise to three different offshoots of religions that now command a multitude of followers across the globe. The author devotes a couple of chapters for each religion and dissects them as best as possible in those few pages. The sad truth behind all religions is how much the tenets put down for lasting peace, tolerance and kindness have been bent into shapes that have supported fundamentalism and massacres across history. One question that has never ceased to trouble me about this abstraction is why does violence occur in the name of a kind, benevolent deity ? Is it that humanity is eager to take God back to his ancient roots of violence, bloodshed and sacrifices ? Armstrong offers no answers to these questions for her job here is to act as a bard, a person who recounts facts and nothing more or less. From pagan beginnings to the World of today, Armstrong traces the story of the old man in the sky. For all these thoughts around the meat around this topic, reading this book is like getting hit on the head with a load of bricks. I don’t mean that you get hit once and then recover, you get hit again and again and again. The flow of facts, theories and explanations are akin to a flood that can sweep you away if you do not hang on for dear life. A reading of the title of this book will bring to your mind an image of an easily understandable history of God as told by the three religions but then nothing could be farther from the truth. You practically have to wade your way through very hefty material which almost reads like a theology text book. Armstrong is not a great author in terms of her skills in associating with a common reader. It is as if - this is how I am going to write and you better keep up if you want to understand what I am trying to say. This is the one book that frustrated me the most in 2015. I wanted to skip and move away from this book but I simply couldn’t for the topic is an amusing one. Hemming and hawing, grumbling and mumbling I finally finished the book. Don’t come to this book expecting an easy, light and understandable read for you will be sorely disappointed. In the chapter ‘The End Of God’, I came across this : One day in Auschwitz, a group of Jews put God on trial. They charged him with betrayal and cruelty. Like Job, they found no consolation in the usual answers to the problems of evil and suffering in the midst of this current obscenity. They could find no excuse for God, no extenuating circumstances, so they found him guilty and, presumably, worthy of death. The Rabbi pronounced the verdict. Then he looked up and said that the trial was over, it was time for the evening prayer.

  29. 4 out of 5

    M Mushthafa

    URL: http://rindupulang.blogspot.com/2001/... Tuhan yang Menyejarah Diskusi tentang Tuhan termasuk dalam kategori problem abadi yang tak kunjung mencapai titik final. Setiap zaman, bahkan sejak 4000 tahun yang lalu, manusia sebagai homo sapiens merekonstruksi konsep-konsep tentang Tuhannya. Tak jarang, bertolak dari konsepsi mereka terhadap Tuhan, lahir gerakan-gerakan sosial yang bersifat liberatif atau bahkan juga muncul tindakan “anarkis” demi menegakkan citra Tuhan yang mereka yakini. Buku ini URL: http://rindupulang.blogspot.com/2001/... Tuhan yang Menyejarah Diskusi tentang Tuhan termasuk dalam kategori problem abadi yang tak kunjung mencapai titik final. Setiap zaman, bahkan sejak 4000 tahun yang lalu, manusia sebagai homo sapiens merekonstruksi konsep-konsep tentang Tuhannya. Tak jarang, bertolak dari konsepsi mereka terhadap Tuhan, lahir gerakan-gerakan sosial yang bersifat liberatif atau bahkan juga muncul tindakan “anarkis” demi menegakkan citra Tuhan yang mereka yakini. Buku ini memerikan suatu peringatan dan pesan yang cukup jelas, bahwa kita semestinya tidak bersikap ahistoris terhadap konsep Tuhan yang berusaha dikenali manusia itu, bahwa ternyata sepanjang sejarah manusia nyaris memiliki konsepsi tentang Tuhan yang begitu beragam—bahkan dalam suatu periode. Buku ini secara cukup utuh menelaah pertumbuhan karakter tiga agama besar—Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam—dalam mengkonsepsikan Tuhan dalam terang perspektif historis-sosiologis. Ziarah intelektual yang dilakukan dalam buku ini sebenarnya bermula dari kekecewaan penulisnya, Karen Armstrong, setelah menyadari bahwa ajaran-ajaran agama yang dipelajarinya selama tujuh tahun menjadi biarawati Katolik Roma adalah hasil dari suatu konstruksi historis yang tentu saja bersifat subjektif. Kebenaran-kebenaran agama yang dikhotbahkan itu melewati proses subjektivikasi dan karena itu tidak dapat lepas dari konteks historis-sosiologis. Ini berarti gagasan manusia tentang Tuhan memiliki sejarah yang berbeda-beda antar-generasi, sehingga tidak aneh bila kadang konsepsi ketuhanan suatu generasi akan dipandang tidak cocok bagi generasi berikutnya. Buku bagus yang terdiri dari sebelas bab ini memulai uraiannya dengan beberapa teori dan pemikiran tentang munculnya gagasan tentang Tuhan. Dengan mengutip beberapa pemikir terkemuka seperti Mircea Eliade, Wilhelm Schmidt atau Rudolf Otto, terungkap bahwa ternyata manusia memang cenderung memiliki kepercayaan terhadap yang gaib yang merupakan dasar dari setiap agama. Kepercayaan terhadap dewa misalnya merupakan contoh dari monoteisme primitif yang mempercayai adanya “Tuhan” yang menciptakan dan mengatur urusan dunia. Semua konsepsi tentang Tuhan yang dikemukakan dari zaman ke zaman atau dari kelompok yang berbeda—mistikus, teolog, filsuf, saintis, dan sebagainya—terbukti tidak sepenuhnya harus rasional, logis, dan ilmiah. Hal ini semakin menegaskan bahwa sebenarnya setiap gagasan tentang Tuhan sebenarnya tidak sakral, karena ia mesti melibatkan penafsiran manusia. Ada semacam sisi pragmatis dari konsep tentang Tuhan, yakni asal ia bisa diterima oleh masyarakat. Muhammad misalnya, Nabi kaum muslim bertolak dari sebuah konsep dakwah yang pada awalnya cukup sederhana. Dia tidak berpikir bahwa dirinya tengah membangun sebuah agama universal (konsep Tuhan yang universal), melainkan justru menggunakan keyakinan kuno masyarakat Arab yang mengajarkan keesaan Tuhan kepada orang-orang Quraisy. Kemudian, dalam perkembangannya, pada sekitar abad ke-17, mulai muncul gagasan-gagasan tentang ateisme. Diam-diam, beberapa kelompok mulai berniat menyingkirkan Tuhan dari kehidupan manusia. Periode ini tidak hanya spesifik dialami masyarakat Barat (Yahudi dan Kristen), tapi juga dialami kaum Muslim. Armstrong dalam buku ini memberikan suatu paparan menarik bahwa pada dasarnya ateisme itu muncul akibat ketidakcukupan konsepsi tentang Tuhan dalam mengikuti gerak roda zaman. Atau, bisa jadi ateisme ini muncul akibat merebaknya tindakan-tindakan mengerikan (pembunuhan, perang, dan sebagainya) yang dilakukan atas nama Tuhan. Saat ini, memasuki milenium ketiga, konsepsi umat manusia tentang Tuhan dihadapkan dengan berbagai pemikiran semisal sekularisme atau spirit humanisme yang ingin menggantikan agama. Buku ini mengajak kita untuk menyegarkan kembali keberimanan kita dan pemahaman serta penghayatan kita terhadap Tuhan, menuju suatu kesadaran bahwa “sosok” Tuhan itu ternyata dapat ditangkap dengan spektrum yang amat luas. Buku ini menggelitik kita untuk melahirkan semangat dan gairah keimanan baru yang bermakna bagi masa depan manusia, agar iman kita itu tidak justru melukai nilai-nilai kemanusiaan.

  30. 4 out of 5

    S.Baqer Al-Meshqab

    A History of God by Karen Armstrong How Men interpreted Divinity for the Last Four Thousand Years A History of God unveils the quest of humans to understand the purpose of creation and the mastermind behind it since the ancient times of Abraham's Canaan until the birth of Atheism in the 20th Century. Armstrong mainly discusses Judaism, Christianity, & Islam, being the most influential monolithic religions to reveal that over the course of time they have been divided into several branches, eac A History of God by Karen Armstrong How Men interpreted Divinity for the Last Four Thousand Years A History of God unveils the quest of humans to understand the purpose of creation and the mastermind behind it since the ancient times of Abraham's Canaan until the birth of Atheism in the 20th Century. Armstrong mainly discusses Judaism, Christianity, & Islam, being the most influential monolithic religions to reveal that over the course of time they have been divided into several branches, each modified to adopt the circumstances in which they were born, and each affected by and affecting the other sects in ways that may not be clearly perceivable. Mesopotamia, Persia, Arabia, Mediterranean regions & European empires, all have been exposed to waves of beliefs and human dominance which erased concepts, modified ideas, and introduced new notions. Abraham's El, Moses' Yahweh, The founding of Israeli Kingdoms, The expulsion of Jews, The birth of Christ and the Introduction of the Trinity, the Rise of Islam of Prophet Muhammad's Mission to create a world which works by the laws of Allah and for the benefit of his followers, the reformation of the idea of God and the roles of Mystics and Philosophers, the resentments towards the deity and seeking atheism as the solution of salvation, and many more events are covered in a brief, fast pacing way. Yes, quite a mix. A History of anything cannot be summed in a mere 500 pages or so. However, Armstrong did a good job collecting, organizing and analyzing the data of four millenniums of human history of understanding God, but how reliable the references were is to be seen. The presentation of words was not well-suited to the average reader to make it easily accessible, as ideas so complicated and foreign never ceased to pop up here and there, trying to clear things up but they blur other things out. Regardless, The book opens up a vast door to the world of theology. Confusing? Yes, very. Mistaken? At some points, yes, but that doesn't mean to question the validity of the whole research, it will make you ask more questions than you think. Informative? Definitely. Three stars because it gave me nightmares to connect the dots, which are still not yet fully connected.

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